Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Friday, July 9, 2010


A ProMED-mail post

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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Tue 6 July 2010
Source: The Ledger [edited]

Encephalitis advisory issued for Polk County after horses test positive
A mosquito-borne disease advisory was issued Tue 6 Jul 2010 for all
of Polk County, prompted by the recent deaths of 2 horses that tested
positive for eastern equine encephalitis.

The advisory urges special precautions to avoid exposure to
mosquitoes, which can transmit the potentially deadly disease to

No human cases of EEE have been reported so far this year [2010] in
Polk or anywhere else in the state, but the odds are getting better,
health officials say, because of the wet weather, which promotes
mosquito breeding.

Horses are especially sensitive to the disease, and owners are urged
to get them vaccinated. According to the Florida Department of
Health, a human vaccine is being developed but is not yet available.

The 2 animals that contracted EEE in recent weeks were kept in rural
sections of Lake Wales and Frostproof, said Polk Medical Director
Daniel Haight. They either succumbed to the disease or had to be
euthanized, he said.

Other cases of horse infections have been reported in the Florida
Panhandle in recent weeks.

Cases of humans being infected with EEE are rare, with only 1 or 2
confirmed in Florida each year.

The symptoms can be mild to severe, Haight said, and it's likely that
some people carry the disease and don't know it. Just the same, he
said, the Health Department works closely with emergency room
physicians, so they're especially keen to look for symptoms of the
disease once an advisory has been issued.

"We know with all this rain we're getting, the numbers (of
mosquitoes) are going to go back up," Haight said.

Symptoms include sudden onset of fever, muscle pain, and headache.
Symptoms can become more severe within 1 to 2 weeks of being infected
and may lead to encephalitis, or swelling of the brain.

Mosquito protection is the best defense. The Health Department
suggests the following steps: avoid being outdoors at dusk and dawn;
wear clothing that covers skin; use repellents that contain up to 30
percent DEET; rid your home and property of standing water; repair
torn screens.

For more information, contact Polk Mosquito Control, 863-534-7377.

[Byline: Eric Pera]

Communicated by:

[The disease in humans may vary from mild to severe, but it is more
often than not fatal to horses. A simple vaccination can protect your
horse from the disease and you and from the pain of euthanizing your
animal. - Mod.TG]

[The state of Florida can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail
interactive map at
County can be located on the map at
. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[see also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): (FL) 20100630.2178
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) 20100627.2146
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) sentinel avian 20100623.2101
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL) 20100527.1755
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (22): (NC) 20091217.4260
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (21): (NH), mosquito surveillance
Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada (04): (NS) 20091107.3845
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Belize (02): (CY) 20091025.3690
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Belize (CY) OIE 20091019.3593
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (20): (RI) 20091014.3543
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Canada: (NS) 20091001.3416
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (17): (NY) human 20091001.3413
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (15): (NH) emu 20090929.3397
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (10): (ME) 20090905.3127
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine, alpaca - USA: (NC, VA) 20090828.3034
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (05): (MO, VA) 20090714.2507
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (03): (FL) 20090701.2378
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA: (GA) 20090613.2197]

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1 comment:

  1. Past Weaponized Agents in USA;
    -Venezuelean equine encephalitis
    -Q fever
    -wheat rust
    -rice blast
    -Eastern and Western equine encephalitis