Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Saturday, October 30, 2010


Ebola as a WMD; http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/bio_ebola.htm

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Thu 28 Oct 2010
Source: CIDRAP News [edited]

Ebola studies detail fatality rate
A detailed report on a 2007 outbreak in Uganda's Bundibugyo district
involving a novel Ebola strain confirmed that the case-fatality rate
(CFR) was lower than seen with the 2 other strains that cause human
illness, researchers from the US Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) and Uganda reported yesterday [27 Oct 2010] in
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) [Case Fatality Proportion of
Deaths for Infection with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, Uganda A. MacNeil et al.

They noted that CFRs in outbreaks of Zaire and Sudan Ebola strains
usually range from 50 percent to 90 percent, but the 2007 outbreak
involving what is now known as the Bundibugyo strain had a 40 percent
CFR (17 of 43 cases). Like the other 2 strains that are human
threats, the Bundibugyo strain was more lethal in people who were
older. Despite the lower CFR, researchers warned that the new strain
is a serious public health concern and showed sustained
person-to-person transmission.

Communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[Previous accounts of the outbreak of Ebolavirus hemorrhagic fever at
Bundibugyo in Uganda left the actual number of cases and fatalities
unresolved (see ProMED-mail archived reports below). This new report
establishes that the case-fatality ratio in the outbreak associated
with the Bundibugyo species of Ebolavirus was lower than that
observed previously in outbreaks caused by the Zaire and Sudan
species of Ebolavirus. But the number of confirmed cases in the
outbreak was less than in some previous estimates of the case number. - Mod.CP]

[see also:
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda (06): (Bundibugyo), new species 20081121.3675
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda (05): (Bundibugyo), susp. 20080304.0883
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda (04): (Bundibugyo), WHO 20080221.0704
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda (03): Arua, susp 20080122.0275
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda (02): (Bundibugyo) 20080107.0092
Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Uganda: (Bundibugyo) 20080104.0050]

ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Friday, October 29, 2010

Genetic Engineering & Biological Weapons


Health Institutes Worry Over Time Released Mutant Virus

Page down to bottom to see summary in red text

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Thu 28 Oct 2010
Source: Eurosurveillance, Volume 15, Issue 43 [abbreviated & edited]

Molecular surveillance of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses
circulating in Italy from May 2009 to February 2010: association
between haemagglutinin mutations and clinical outcome
By: S Puzelli1, M Facchini1, M A De Marco1, A Palmieri1, D Spagnolo1,
S Boros1, F Corcioli2, D Trotta3, P Bagnarelli3, A Azzi2, A Cassone1,
G Rezza1, M G Pompa4, F Oleari4, I Donatelli1, the Influnet
Surveillance Group for Pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus in Italy5

(1) Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases,
National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita - ISS), Rome, Italy
(2) Department of Public Health, University of Florence, Italy
(3) Unit of Virology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Universita
Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
(4) Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy


Haemagglutinin sequences of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses
circulating in Italy were examined, focusing on amino acid changes at
position 222 because of its suggested pathogenic relevance. Among 169
patients, the D222G substitution was detected in 3 of 52 (5.8
percent) severe cases and in one of 117 (0.9 percent) mild cases,
whereas the D222E mutation was more frequent and evenly distributed
in mild (31.6 percent) and severe cases (38.4 percent). A cluster of
D222E viruses among school children confirms reported human-to-human
transmission of viruses mutated at amino acid position 222.

[Readers should access the original text to view the data, figures
and literature references. What follows are extracts from the
authors' discussion of their conclusions. - Mod.CP]

Discussion and conclusions:

We have previously described the only documented transmission event
of a D222G mutant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus; to the best of
our knowledge, this mutation appears to be hardly ever transmitted.
Less is known about the human-to-human transmissibility of D222E
virus mutants. In the present study, we found that this mutation is
much more frequent than the D222G mutation and equally distributed
between severe and mild cases. In particular, we describe a cluster
of close contacts carrying the D222E substitution in a group of high
school students with mild disease returning from England, suggesting
inter-human transmission of D222E pandemic influenza A(H1N1) mutant
viruses. However, the clinical significance of the D222E substitution
remains uncertain.

It is of note that the D222G mutation was detected more commonly
among viruses isolated from severe cases, which were about 7 times
more likely to have this genetic change than those isolated from mild
cases; however, the difference did not reach statistical
significance, probably due to limited study power.

The D222G variants were detected among adults (18-64 age group).
Whether this was due to the fact that this age group had the highest
number of cases (including severe ones) or to unidentified biological
factors remains undefined. In particular, due to the relatively
limited number of cases with the D222G variant, definitive
conclusions about possible age differences cannot be drawn.

Studies conducted in other countries, e.g. Norway and Scotland, also
found D222G to be more common among severe than mild cases. Although
these results indicate that the 222G variant may be more virulent,
this association must be interpreted with caution as the same
mutation was detected in mild cases, and mixed D222D and D222G virus
populations were found in original samples and isolates from patients
with severe disease.

In vitro studies show conflicting results. Studies conducted in the
United States found the 222G mutation only in isolated viruses but
not in the original clinical samples. On the other hand, preliminary
results from in vitro studies suggest that D222G substitution might
enhance binding of HA to alpha2-3 sialic acid (avian-like) cell
receptors, thus increasing virus ability to infect human lung cells.
Moreover, studies from Liu et al. [9] and Chutinimitkul et al. [See
ProMED-mail report: Influenza (10): D222G & severity 20101026.3881.]
suggest an increased receptor affinity of the 222G variant for
ciliated bronchial epithelial cells, which may explain enhanced
disease in humans. Increased binding to macrophages and pneumocytes
of the respiratory tract may indeed have an impact on disease
severity, since those cells are major producers of inflammatory
cytokines upon viral antigen stimulation.

Finally, our data suggest that the D222G substitution is overall
rather infrequent, even among severe cases. However, we confirm that
it occurs with a higher frequency in severe cases. Whether this
association is indicative of higher virulence or is the consequence
of receptor-specific adaptive mutation needs to be further investigated.

Communicated by;

[These data further document the mutability of the 222 site in the
influenza virus haemagglutinin and demonstrate an association of the
D222G substitution with a severe disease outcome in a subset of
Italian patients, in addition to those previously reported in
patients in Norway, Scotland and elsewhere. However, evidence for
transmissibility of the D222G mutation is lacking. In contrast, a
cluster of isolates from school children with D222E substitutions
confirms human-to-human transmission of viruses mutated at amino acid
position 222. Whether this association of the D222G substitution with
severe disease outcomes is indicative of higher virulence or is the
consequence of receptor-specific adaptive mutation is an open question.

It should be remembered, in addition, that a study carried out at the
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza in
Atlanta found the D222G substitution in 14 virus isolates, but not in
viruses in the original clinical specimens, indicating the D222G
substitution in these 14 virus isolates occurred after growth in the

[see also:
Influenza (10): D222G & severity 20101026.3881
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (31): UK (Scotland) D222G mut'n 20100422.1310
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (28): Hong Kong SAR, Norway, D222G mutation
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (21): Norway, D222G mutation 20100305.0729]

ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Thursday, October 28, 2010

Cholera Outbreak Threatens Hatians Existance / Notes From Penn

Dear Friend,

Haiti is now facing its worst health crisis since the earthquake -- the cholera epidemic that has already claimed over 250 lives, with another 3,000 cases confirmed by the Ministry of Health (MOH).

This fast spreading cholera outbreak—the first to hit Haiti in 50 years – has reached Port-Au-Prince, and J/P has already stepped to the forefront of the action. We are currently fighting a two front battle of treatment and prevention. We've deployed teams and medical supplies to the worst hit areas in the North, while also taking extensive precautions in Petionville camp, which we manage.
Petionville is still initially cholera free. J/P HRO's proactive measures include building an isolation ward separate from our hospital with a capacity for 100 patients and stocking it with the fluids and medical supplies needed for treatment. We’ve also installed additional handwashing stations in camp, and mounted massive education campaigns about hygiene & sanitation not only in the camp but also the surrounding communities.

This outbreak has the potential to wreck this already devastated country, but if we act quickly, we can make a tremendous difference. That's why I'm writing to you to request your immediate help.

Here's what you can do:

Make a contribution to J/P HRO. No matter how much you can afford to give, every dollar of your contribution goes directly to helping the people of Haiti.
Start fundraising for J/P HRO. Help bring your friends and family into the fight against the cholera outbreak in Haiti by setting up your personal fundraising page and asking them to contribute.

In addition, if you work in the medical community, you can help by:
Donating Supplies: Click here for a list of medical supplies we urgently need to fight the cholera outbreak.

Becoming a Medical Volunteer: All sorts of licensed medical personnel are needed in Haiti, including pharmacists. Unfortunately we cannot take EMT's, medical students or under 3rd year resident MD's. This work is first and foremost about saving lives, not a learning experience, so we are looking for people who can manage these roles well in a high stress emergency environment.

Please also be sure to forward this email on to friends, family members or colleagues who may be able to help financially or by volunteering.
We are dependent upon our incredible supporters to achieve what we do. Now, we face our greatest crisis since the earthquake. Please, do what you can today to help us fight this dangerous outbreak of cholera in Haiti.

Thank you for everything you do.
Sean Penn

Monday, October 25, 2010



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:

[1] Human: IEDCR update

[2] News report


[1] Human: IEDCR update

Date: Thu 14 Oct 2010

Source: Bangladesh Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and

Research (IEDCR) [edited]

Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Institute of

Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) Mohakhali, Dhaka-1212

Number of cutaneous anthrax cases from 18 Aug to 25 Oct 2010


District / Total / Change since last posting 14 Oct 2010 / In last 24

hours (25 Oct 2010) / Upazilla [subdistrict] (cases)

1. Pabna / 69 / 0 / 0 / Bera (11), Santhia (35), Faridpur (23)

2. Sirajganj / 219 / 0 / 0 / Shadjadpur (56), Belkuchi (54),

Kamarkhanda (99), Ullapara (10)

3. Kushtia / 49 / 0 / 0 / Daulotpur (46), Bheramara (3)

4. Tangail / 26 / 0 / 0 / Ghatail (14), Gopalpur (12)

5. Meherpur / 82 / 0 / 0 / Ganghi (81), Mujibnagar (1)

6. Manikganj / 8 / 0 / 0 / Shaturia (8)

7. Shatkhira / 1 / 0 / 0 / Sadar (1)

8. Lalmonirhat / 107 / 0 / 0 / Sadar (78), Aditmari (29)

9. Rajshahi / 8 / 0 / 0 / Chaghat (7), Tanore (1**)

10. Narayangonj / 12 / 0 / 0 / Araihajar (12)

11. Laxmipur / 25 / 0 / 0 / Kamalnagar (25)

12. Chittagong / 1 / 0 / 0 / City (1)

Total: 607 (0*)

*No new cases reported since 8 Oct 2010

** Imported from Sirajganj


Communicated by:


[It would appear that this epidemic may be over. - Mod.MHJ]


[2] News report

Date: Sun 24 Oct 2010

Source: The New Nation [edited]

Anthrax red alert goes


The government the other day lifted the 'red alert' on anthrax it had

issued a month back in the backdrop of an outbreak infecting cattle

and human beings. The prompt government action is aimed at 'removing

unnecessary fear of anthrax disease' from the people as explained by

the fisheries and livestock minister through the press as meat-sale

came almost to a halt throughout the country causing a serious threat

to all the related industries. In fact, the red alert resulted in a

drastic fall in the consumption of beef, mutton, milk, and virtually

halting cattle trade and drying up supply of hides and skin to the

leather industry, as reported.

A total of 104 cows were infected by anthrax in 3 months from 1 Jul

to 30 Sep 2010 compared to much higher figures of anthrax infection

of 449 last year [2009] and 437 in 2008 as per official records. The

livestock minister held the media responsible for 'over publicity'

given to anthrax which is like many other animal diseases. The

situation came under control following the prompt official response

since the 1st case of infection was detected on 18 Aug 2010 at

Sirajganj. The concerned departments have however been asked to

remain alert and keep watch on the situation.

The red alert was issued on 5 Sep 2010 as anthrax cases were reported

from several districts. Following this, meat sales came to a stop in

the city and elsewhere in the country. The livestock directorate,

civil surgeons were on alert. As no fresh case of anthrax was

reported since 18 Sep 2010, the government lifted the red alert on 7

Oct 2010. The government accordingly instructed to complete cattle

vaccination in the affected districts a month ahead of the holy

Eid-ul-Azha to be celebrated in the 3rd week of November [2010].


Communicated by:


[In an earlier posting 20101008.3655 the government stated that it

intended to lift the red alert on 7 Oct 2010. It has been done. - Mod.MHJ]

[see also:

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (22) 20101015.3741

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (21): 3 new cases 20101008.3655

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (20): 6 new cases 20101001.3570

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (19): 14 new cases 20100924.3461

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (18): 65 new cases 20100920.3395

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (17) 20100917.3373

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (16) 20100915.3346

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (15) 20100914.3323

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (14) 20100910.3279

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (13) 20100908.3236

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (12): Id alert 20100907.3224

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (11): widespread 20100905.3191

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (10): (KU, TA) 20100902.3140

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (09): (SR, PB) 20100831.3109

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (08): (SR, PB) 20100828.3066

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (07): (SR) 20100827.3044

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (06): (SR) 20100826.3009

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (05): (SR) conf. 20100825.2996

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (04): (SR) susp. 20100824.2970

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (03): (PB) susp. 20100823.2944

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh (02): (SR) 20100820.2914

Anthrax, human, bovine - Bangladesh: (TA) susp, RFI 20100421.1291]




ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that

are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the

information, and of any statements or opinions based

thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in

using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID

and its associated service providers shall not be held

responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any

damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted

or archived material.


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First Cholera, Now, New ANTHRAX Outbreak in Haiti

Last week we reported on a Cholera Outbreak in Haiti; http://meatsubs.blogspot.com/2010/10/thousands-die-needlessly-in-haiti-from.html

and now, today,  this;


(Apparently, Haiti has had a problem with Anthrax since the 1990's)


A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Sat 23 Oct 2010

Source: Marie-Carmel Charles reported to HealthMap Alerts [edited]

Anthrax - Haiti report


First human death of anthrax ("charbon" in French) is confirmed in Leogane.

Communicated by:

Dr Marie-Carmel Charles

to HealthMap Alerts

[This reflects more the invasion of health personnel lately than a

change in the anthrax status of Haiti. Anthrax is hyperendemic in

this western part of Hispaniola -- Santo Domingo manages to be

essentially free. Reports during the past decade have been sparse.

They merely informed OIE that the disease was present in livestock

and humans. However during the 1900's there were significant numbers

of human cases reported most years: 1993 (more than 180), 1994 (622),

1995 (768), 1998 (183 human cases and 220 cattle cases), 1999 (176)

-- and remember the population of Haiti is not large so these

numerator numbers are significant. - Mod.MHJ]

[Leogane, in the Ouest Department of Haiti, can be located on the

HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Haiti at

. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]




ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that

are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the

information, and of any statements or opinions based

thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in

using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID

and its associated service providers shall not be held

responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any

damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted

or archived material.


Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:


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scribe at .

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Friday, October 22, 2010

Thousands Sicken, Hundreds Die (needlessly) in Haiti from (Suspect) Cholera

Cholera as a WMD; http://www.millennium-ark.net/News_Files/NBC/Bio.Bugs.Cholera.html



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases



Date: 21 Oct

Source: AFP [edited]

Cholera outbreak behind Haiti deaths: health official


An outbreak of cholera was to blame for dozens of

deaths in Haiti in recent days, a health official

said Thursday.

"The first results from the lab tests show that

there is cholera, but we don't know which type,"

an official from the public health ministry told

AFP, asking to remain anonymous.

"The government and the health authorities are

meeting at the moment and an announcement will be

made," he added.

Health officials said earlier that at least 50

people had died from acute diarrhea and hundreds

were being treated in local hospitals as

laboratory tests were carried out to determine

the cause of the illness.

The outbreak of illness was outside the capital,

which was ravaged by a devastating 7.0 earthquake

in January, leaving more than 250,000 people dead

and another 1.2 million homeless.

Cholera is transmitted by water but also by food

that has been in contact with unclean water

contaminated with by cholera bacteria.

It causes serious diarrhea and vomiting, leading

to dehydration. With a short incubation period,

it can be fatal if not treated in time.

The World Health Organization says on its website

that "cholera is an extremely virulent disease.

It affects both children and adults and can kill

within hours."

Aid agencies have voiced fears for months that

any outbreak of disease could spread rapidly in

Haiti due to the unsanitary conditions in the

makeshift camps housing the homeless, with little

access to clean water.

The impoverished Caribbean nation has also been

hit in recent days by severe flooding, adding to

the misery of those struggling to survive in the

scores of tent cities now dotting the country.


Communicated by:




Date: 21 Oct 2010

Source: Miami Herald [edited]

Cholera blamed in deaths of more than 100 in Haiti


Haitian health officials are blaming the deaths

of more than 100 people suffering from acute

diarrhea and dehydration on an outbreak of


"For sure it is that," said a Ministry of Health

official, who asked not to be identified because

the government had yet to make an official


At least 1,000 people had been hospitalized in

the lower Artibonite region in recent days, with

the main hospital in St. Marc filled to capacity.

The conclusion of cholera was supported by

diplomats at one foreign embassy. A report

obtained by The Miami Herald stated that foreign

health experts working with the Haitian

government to identify the problem were "99

percent sure it is cholera" that caused severe

diarrhea and vomiting in St. Marc, Mirebalais,

Drouin and Marchand Dessalines. On Thursday,

Haitian health specialists along with the Centers

for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta

continued to investigate the source of the

outbreak while the government trucked in

thousands of gallons of water.

South Florida-based Food for the Poor also

announced that it was shipping in antibiotic,

oral dehydration salts, water filtration units

and other critically needed supplies to several

cities and rural villages near the outbreak. So

far, it had not reached Gonaives, the largest

city in the Artibonite region.

The U.S. Embassy warned U.S. citizens that they

should only drink bottled water, avoid

undercooked or raw seafood and ``seek medical

assistance if you develop acute, water

diarrhea,'' it said.

Cholera is a contagious bacterial disease that

affects the intestinal system. Symptoms include

severe vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. It can

cause death within four to 12 hours after

symptoms begin if untreated. Spread through

consumption of infected food and water, or feces,

the disease is treated with fluids and


The disease outbreak is the country's first since

January's 7.0 earthquake claimed more than

300,000 lives.

A spokeswoman with the United Nations Office for

the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs said the

source of what's causing the problems is still

being investigated.

"We have not received any confirmation on what is

causing an increase of diarrhea in the lower

Artibonite region," Jessica Duplessi, a

spokeswoman with OCHA said. "There has been an

increase in cases of severe vomiting and

diarrhea, which in particular is quite an

epidemic in Haiti. We still don't know if it's

coming from one central source or not. That is

what the doctors and experts are trying to


The Pan American Health Organization also warned

against concluding too soon that cholera was the

source of the outbreak.

"We just need confirmation of further

investigation before we change the labeling and

we have a precise diagnosis of the underlying

cause," said Dr. Michel Thieren, senior program

management officer with the PAHO Haiti Office.

"No one can say for sure. We are assisting with

all sorts of rumors."

He said PAHO officials and the ministry of health

officials sent an evaluation mission to the area,

and are awaiting the results of tests.

He said the joint PAHO/Ministry of Health

evaluation mission received reports of 1,526

cases and 138 deaths of unconfirmed severe

diarrhea. The numbers he said must be

investigated and remain "very questionable."

The reports spurred interest among some of

Haiti's candidates in the Nov. 28 presidential

and legislative elections. Both presidential

hopefuls Jude Célestin and Charles Henri Baker

spent the day visiting rural communities impacted

by the outbreak and said they went as concerned


"Every courtyard has at least three to four

deaths," Célestin said in a statement, noting

that he first heard the news Wednesday and

traveled to the communities early Thursday

morning. "People told us they had their kids

dying and they did not know what it was. They

said the deaths came after the rain. In Drouin,

the chief doctor told us they had more than 50


Baker said he was on a campaign tour in the

region when he heard the news. He described a

scene of people being laid out onto sidewalks,

and children dying in the back of one of his

campaign pickup trucks before it even reached the


"It's bad, Baker told The Herald by telephone,

describing the emaciated look of people in the

rural towns of Bac d'Aquin and Danash. ``They

were just putting people on the side of the road.

They look like skeletons.''

Baker said he was told that between 60 and 70

people had died from dehydration and diarrhea. In

one town, he saw only one ambulance, and left one

of the campaign trucks to transport sick


"I don't even feel like campaigning anymore. It's

unbelievable when they tell you the number of

people who are sick," he said, describing the

problem as "pretty widespread at the moment."

"I don't see anybody really taking charge . . .

The government needs to be here, take some

samples, run some tests and see if it is the

water. We need confirmation, not hearsay. The

urgency is to save the lives of those who are

already sick."

On Wednesday, the National Palace ordered at

least 4,000 gallons of water, and the Center

National des Equipments (CNE), which Célestin

formerly headed, ordered up 6,000 gallons of

water. The deliveries continued Thursday with

thousands more gallons of water delivered in.

[Byline: Jacqueline Charles]


Communicated by:




Date: Thu, 21 Oct 2010 18:06:56 -0500

From: James Wilson

We have indications of an infectious disease

event in Haiti (Artibonite Valley) rated now at a

possible IDIS Category 4 infectious disease event

transitioning to a Category 5, defined as:

IDIS Category 4. Infectious disease event

associated with social disruption. Category

4 events highlight when organized response

has occurred, yet significant social disruption

has been documented.

IDIS Category 5. Infectious disease event associated with disaster indicators.

Key observations as of the date/time of this message:

-Non-routine occurrence of diarrheal disease,

described by Dr. Claude Surena, President of the

Haitian Medical Association, as "according to the

results of the analysis carried out in the

laboratory it is cholera" to AFP

-We note, however, that true laboratory-confirmed

cholera has not been reported since the early

1990s [probably earlier - Mod.LM] and thus are

skeptical of etiology being true cholera

1500 cases reported with 135 fatalities, rapid

disease onset noted along with high pediatric

case counts reported

-Photographs and direct observations from St

Nicholas Hospital in St Marc and comments from

Dr. Surena indicate the hospital is overwhelmed

and now in the process of divesting patients to

other clinics for treatment- indicative /

suggestive of local medical capacity collapse;

photographs show multiple patients on IV therapy

-ORS is being used and is being mobilized.

PROMESS aware, however logistics status unknown.

-Local infrastructure to respond in Artibonite is

severely limited, with evidence of poor

information sharing and alerting capacity.

Public health resources are much more limited

than in Port-au-Prince

-Significant community anxiety noted; indigenous

Haitians claiming the presence of "cholera" and

surging advice via Twitter for proper food and

water handling / sanitation precautions

-International NGOs are mobilizing, and the UN

Clusters are mobilizing around the issue such as

WASH and Health.

-Statements to-date/time from WHO/PAHO and MSPP

emphasize no laboratory confirmation

-Tremendous and abrupt international

sensitization as evidenced by Twitter and HEAS

web portal hit counts

We wish to emphasize the purpose of Infectious

Disease Impact Scale (IDIS) is a heuristic

mechanism to contextualize emerging indicators

pertaining to possible infectious disease

events possibly evolving to crises and perhaps

disasters. Therefore, while we are confident the

event is a true diarrheal disease event, we are

unable to verify if it is truly due to cholera or

that it is truly a Category 4-5 event at this

time. What we are implying is immediate closer

scrutiny and verification is required. Haiti is

currently in the major rainy season, which is

expected to persist through November.

We eagerly await clarity from WHO/PAHO or MSPP.


James M. Wilson V, M.D.

Haiti Epidemic Advisory System (HEAS)

Executive Director

Praecipio International

[Cholera entered the Americas region in 1991 with

the initial outbreak starting in Peru (speculated

to be related to a Chinese freighter dumping it's

bilge close to the shore line as it travelled

northward in the country). Checking the table on

the PAHO website


during the period 1991 and 2006 most countries in

continental Latin America were affected at one

point or another with cholera cases (Mexico,

Central America and South America), whereas no

cases were officially reported from the Caribbean

Islands, including Hispanola.

The most recent documented cholera transmission

was in Apr 2009 when there was an outbreak in

indigenous communities in Paraguay


I would not be surprised if there was a cholera

outbreak in Haiti. A 9 percent CFR would not be

surprising for the beginning of such an outbreak

before the supply network is geared up for

distribution of water and ORS, and IV solutions

where needed. (Nigeria reports a 10-14% CFR for

example, although in Peru in 1991 there was a

less than 1% CFR as the country's logistic system

was phenomenal). - Mod.MPP]

[The occurrence of acute watery diarrhea with

many fatalities among adults is indeed suggestive

of cholera. However cholera has not been seen in

Haiti or elsewhere in the Caribbean for many

years and it is difficult to understand how it

could be introduced (food? relief workers?) at

this time. However, laboratory detection of

_Vibrio cholerae_ is not difficult and numerous

media reports (though no official reports) are

now indicating that this has occurred.

Certainly conditions are ripe for the spread of

cholera in Haiti if and when it is introduced,

compounding an already desperate situation.

ProMED awaits further information and

confirmation of the etiology or etiologies, along

with serotype and other details. - Mod.LM]

[See also:

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (24) 20100914.3324

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (23) 20100910.3277

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (22) 20100907.3222

Disease situation, post-earthquake - Haiti 20100207.0411

Disease situation, post-earthquake - Haiti (02) 20100307.0750]




ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that

are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the

information, and of any statements or opinions based

thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in

using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID

and its associated service providers shall not be held

responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any

damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted

or archived material.


Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:


Visit ProMED-mail's web site at .

Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to

an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name

name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-

scribe at .

For assistance from a human being, send mail to:




Sunday, October 17, 2010


Lassa Fever as a Bio-weapon; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/18/2391



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Sun 17 Oct 2010

From: Daniel Bausch

re: Lassa fever -- Sierra Leone (02): (NO) 20101008.3662


We are writing to provide further information regarding the recent postings

on Lassa fever in Sierra Leone:

1. The index case was a 17 year old pregnant woman who delivered at 28

weeks gestational age. Both she and the baby (not a 6 year old) died.

Although she and her family occasionally caught and consumed rodents, there

is no history of her running a "rat meat restaurant".

2. In all, there were 35 identified contacts of this woman and child, but

only 4 developed Lassa fever. All had direct contact with the index case or

secondary cases, and all 4 survived. We have not identified any more cases,

and, since the time from the last known contact of any of the confirmed

cases has now exceeded the 3-week maximum incubation period for Lassa

fever, we do not anticipate more cases related to this particular chain of


3. Whether "the disease has migrated from the forest region of the east to

the savannah grasslands of the north" is a very open question. The index

case denied travel to the known endemic area in the east, but it is always

possible that the infection resulted from unrecognized contact from an

infected person coming from the east to her village in Bombali District.

Our zoology team is presently trapping rodents in the home and village of

the index case. Identification of Lassa virus-positive _Mastomys

natalensis_ would confirm the notion that the endemic area has expanded.

However, it should be noted that suspected cases of Lassa fever have been

reported from this area before, but laboratory facilities were not

available at the time to confirm them.

4. There has indeed been a significant increase in reported cases of Lassa

fever in Sierra Leone over the last 9 months or so. However, this

observation largely coincides with the implementation of Sierra Leone's new

policy of providing free care to children under 5 and pregnant and

lactating mothers (). The numbers

of patients seen in hospitals and health clinics sky-rocketed, driving

upward the perceived incidence of virtually every disease that affects

these groups, including Lassa fever. Whether the observed increase in cases

of Lassa fever is purely reflective of the change in policy or also has

concomitant biological determinants is unknown. It should also be noted

that, for reasons unknown, there is significant seasonal and yearly

fluctuation in the incidence of Lassa fever.


communicated by:

Foday Dafae, MD

National Disease Surveillance Coordinator, Sierra Leone

Ministry of Health and Sanitation

James Bangura

Lassa Fever Surveillance Coordinator, Eastern Province,

Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation

Daniel Bausch, MD, MPH&TM

Director, Tulane University Research and Training Program in the Mano River

Union Countries of West Africa

[ProMED-mail thanks Daniel Bausch and colleagues for these valuable

first-hand observations on the Lassa fever situation in the Northern region

of Sierra Leone, and for correcting some aspects of the previous report.

The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Sierra Leone is available at

. - Mod.CP]

[see also:

Lassa fever - Sierra Leone (02): (NO) 20101008.3662

Lassa fever - Sierra Leone: (NO) 20101001.3555

Lassa fever - Nigeria: (KE) 20100519.1656



Lassa fever, predictive maps - West Africa 20090428.1605

Lassa fever - Nigeria (07) 20090319.1108

Lassa fever - UK ex Mali (02): fatal 20090313.1036

Lassa fever - Nigeria (06) 20090309.0981

Lassa fever - Nigeria (05) 20090308.0971

Lassa fever - Nigeria (04): control 20090306.0937

Lassa fever - Nigeria (03) 20090305.0913

Lassa fever - Nigeria (02) 20090225.0788

Lassa fever - UK ex Mali: fatal 20090219.0692

Lassa fever - Nigeria 20090218.0669

Lassa fever - UK ex Nigeria (03): fatal 20090130.0414

Lassa fever - UK ex Nigeria (02) 20090124.0308

Lassa fever - UK ex Nigeria 20090123.0296]




ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that

are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the

information, and of any statements or opinions based

thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in

using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID

and its associated service providers shall not be held

responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any

damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted

or archived material.


Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:


Visit ProMED-mail's web site at .

Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to

an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name

name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-

scribe at .

For assistance from a human being, send mail to:




Saturday, October 16, 2010

USDA's Role in Biological Warfare

And friends;International Organizations

􀂾U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization; http://www.fao.org/

􀂾World Bank (If their mission is to end poverty they are doing a piss poor job;) - http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html

􀂾U.S./Israel BARD ; http://www.bard-isus.com/local.aspx?lfidl=2


Phumonic Plague in Ukraine; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN9XFS8x6KE&feature=player_embedded

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Fri, 15 Oct 2010

Source: Agrodigital.com [In Spanish, trans, Corr.SB, edited]

A new highly pathogenic strain of virus PRRS has been detected


Researchers at the University of Ghent (Belgium), led by Dr Hans Nauwynck,

have discovered a new strain of the porcine reproductive and respiratory

syndrome virus (PRRSV).

PRRSV is divided into genotypes of Europe and of North America. PRRSV

isolates from Eastern Europe belong to the European genotype, but are

different subtypes.

The researchers found, in a pig farm in Belarus, a new PRRSV which they

named "Lena". Analyses revealed that Lena is a new subtype 3 in Eastern

Europe, highly pathogenic and causes severe clinical symptoms. It is

different from European subtype 1 Lelystad and North American US5 strains.


communicated by:


[The original paper, published on 4 Jun 2010 in BMC Veterinary Research (an

open access, peer-reviewed journal, UK) is available online at

(ref 1). The paper includes,

among other data, a description of the severe clinical signs, including

significant mortality, in pigs experimentally infected by the "Lena"

strain, compared with other Type I (European) PRRSV.

Most ProMED-mail's postings addressing PRRSV, so far, were related to the

major epizootic (popularly named "blue-ear disease") in China and Vietnam

since 2006. This was caused by a Type II virus, related to North American

lineages. A list of available vaccines against PRRSV is to be found at


1. Karniychuk UU, Geldhof M, Vanhee M, Van Doorsselaere J, Saveleva TA,

Nauwynck HJ. (). Pathogenesis and antigenic characterization of a new East

European subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

isolate. BMC Vet. Res. 2010; 6: 30.

Further reading:

MP Murtaugh, T Stadejek, JE Abrahante, TT Lam, FC Leung. The ever-expanding

diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus

Res. 2010; Aug 27 [Epub ahead of print]. Available online (purchase

required) at:



[see also:



Porcine reprod. & resp. syndrome - China (03): virulence 20091025.3694



Porcine reprod. & resp. syndrome - China (02) 20070514.1533

Porcine reproductive & respiratory syndrome - Viet Nam (04): OIE 20070422.1316



Multisystemic wasting syndrome, swine - NZ: suspected 20031002.2480



Multisystemic wasting syndrome, swine - UK (02) 20011031.2688



PRRS virus, pigs - Ireland 19990219.0217]


Thursday, October 14, 2010



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: 14 Sep 2010

Source: Bulletin epidemiologique hebdomadaire 2010; 14 September: 15-17

[translated, edited]

Animal anthrax in France. A 10-year report (1999-2009) with special

emphasis on the 2009 summer outbreaks



Between 1999 and 2009, 74 outbreaks of animal anthrax, primarily in cattle,

were confirmed by isolation of _Bacillus anthracis_ in 14 French districts

(annual mean: 7 outbreaks). All cases occurred in areas where outbreaks had

been reported previously. While the annual number of outbreaks remained low

and stable from 1999 to 2007 (0-6 outbreaks/year), 19 outbreaks were

recorded in 2008 (of which 17 clustered outbreaks in Doubs) and 22 in 2009

(of which 17 clustered outbreaks in Savoie). All cases occurred in cattle,

except for one horse case in 2001, while goat and horse cases occurred in

2009. The relatively high number of outbreaks observed in Savoie and in

Doubs is not fully explained, but certainly related in part to the local

anthrax history and to weather conditions during summer.

Outbreaks by year: 1999 (5), 2000 (5), 2001 (3), 2002 (0), 2003 (6), 2004

(3), 2005 (2), 2006 (3), 2007 (6), 2008 (19), 2009 (22).

Farms in 2009

In 2009, a total of 24 farms were suspected (of anthrax) in 8 departments.

These suspicions were confirmed in 5 departments. (A department is similar

to a state in the USA) The outbreaks occurred in areas already affected by

anthrax (fievre carboneuse) in the past. The 1st 2 outbreaks in June-July

2009 involved 2 cattle herds, respectively, in the Puy de Dome (one dead

animal) and Cote-d'Or (3 dead). The 3rd outbreak, which occurred in July

2009 in Aveyron, was in a holding of mixed cattle and goats and began with

the death of a heifer in a field with a water point. The calf was

necropsied in the pasture without special protection as it was thought to

have been killed by lightning. The body was moved using a tractor. A week

later, 4 more corpses were discovered over 3 days in this field, and 2 had

been consumed by scavengers.

A 2nd necropsy was done, this time with some caution, and anthrax

diagnosed. A total of 19 goats and 5 heifers died in this breeding

establishment. The tractor used to move the corpses had been used in

transporting feed to the goat barn and specifically their common feed

trough. This undoubtedly contributed to the extension of infection in the

goat population. During this outbreak, preventive chemotherapy was put in

place for the employees of the establishment and the family (of the) the

breeder and veterinarians who performed the autopsies. The operation to

vaccinate the cattle was also rapidly implemented.

The following farms, where a significant episode occurred, are in Savoie in

the township of La Rochette (Valee des Huiles). In less than a month (26

Jul to 15 Aug 2009), 17 outbreaks were confirmed. 15 cattle herds and 2

horses were infected, which led to the deaths of 32 head of cattle and 2

horses located in 11 nearby municipalities. Seven other herds experienced

deaths of cattle over the period but were not confirmed as anthrax. A 3rd

horse which showed clinical signs of anthrax was treated. The 3 horses had

been in contact with each other and were epidemiologically linked to at

least one cattle farm. Cases of anthrax in horses are usually rare in

France. A single outbreak was recorded in Mayenne in 2001, where a horse

had died of anthrax. Previous episodes of confirmed anthrax in Savoy had

been reported in Bauges in 2000 and in the same area of Valee des Huiles in


Two outbreaks were also confirmed in Isere in August 2009. They involved 2

herds with the same common boundary with 2 already infected communes in Savoy.

Vaccination of livestock in Savoie and Isere was very quickly established

in 16 Communes. No human cases have been reported, but preventative

treatment was administered to exposed people. Control for public health and

milk safety was put in place on the infected farms following an assessment

by the competent authorities (Direction General of Health, Direction

General of Food, National Reference Center, French Food Safety Agency).

Suspicious strains were isolated by departmental veterinary laboratories

(LVD) and/or the NRL mainly from cattle (23), but also goats (1) and horses

(2), and were confirmed as _B. anthracis_ by specific PCR and were

susceptible to penicillin, facilitating a preventive antibiotic for people

exposed. Molecular typing by MLVA [multi-locus VNTR analysis] analysis

using 10 VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) loci was performed on all

strains. The profiles of recent strains and those isolated since 1982, in

the same departments, were compared. The same VNTR genotype was found in

each department, regardless of place and date of isolation. For all

households of Savoy, the strains showed the same genotype (10 identical

loci) suggesting a common origin (for example epidemiologically linked to

outbreaks, contaminated land, same genotype). The ongoing review of other

VNTR loci is likely to test this hypothesis.

The question that remains unanswered, after successive episodes in Doubs

(French Department on Swiss border) in 2008 and Savoy in 2009, concerns the

mechanisms that led to the emergence of a significant number of affected

farms in a given location over a short period in some regions, while in

others -- fortunately in most instances -- only isolated sporadic cases

were seen. In historically contaminated areas and in favourable

hydro-geological conditions, along with delayed diagnosis, the movements of

animals, people or materials, and weather conditions all certainly

contribute each in their own way to the occurrence of multiple episodes of

disease over a short period.


communicated by:


[I am very grateful to my colleague Susan for her translation. I only have

schoolboy French and of the mid-1950s. Interested readers are encouraged to

read the full article, which contains a table of outbreaks by year,

1999-2009, department, and species affected. This table differs here and

there from the OIE data in WAHID. - Mod.MHJ]



Date: 14 Sep 2010

Source: Bulletin epidemiologique hebdomadaire [edited]

Anthrax in man: review of cases and persons exposed and treated during

recent animal outbreaks in France, 2002-2008


Anthrax has been subject to compulsory notification since 2002. Since that

time, 4 cases of human anthrax have been identified. In 2003, a case of

cutaneous anthrax was diagnosed in a patient exposed while butchering an

infected sheep in an enzootic area. In December 2008, 3 cases of cutaneous

anthrax were identified in men who had taken part in the evisceration and

butchering of a cow with anthrax. The investigation identified 11 people in

contact with that cow who were possibly infected and consequently received

antimicrobial prophylaxis. A risk assessment was carried out concerning the

consumption of meat from cows gutted with the same knives previously used

to gut the infected cow and concerning the consumption of meals handed by

one of the cases. [1] They were diagnosed by PCR of skin biopsies from the

lesions. All responded favourably to treatment and without complications. [2]


1. Mailles A, Alauzet C, Mock M, Garin-Bastuji B, Veran Y. Cas groupes de

charbon cutane humain en Moselle - Decembre 2008. Saint-Maurice: Institut

de veille sanitaire, fevrier 2010 ;4 p. Available at

2. Cinquetti G, Banal F, Dupuy AL, Girault PY, Couderc A, Guyot P, et al.

Three related cases of cutaneous anthrax in France: clinical and laboratory

aspects. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009;88(6):371-5.


communicated by:


[see also:



Anthrax, bovine - France (03): (AV) caprine 20090811.2863

Anthrax, bovine - France (02): (SV,IS) 20090810.2838

Anthrax, bovine - France: (SV) 20090808.2813



Anthrax, human - Germany ex France (02) 20081213.3924

Anthrax, human - Germany ex France 20081211.3897

bovine - France (02): (Doubs) 20080821.2609

Anthrax, bovine - France: (Doubs) 20080818.2572]


Monday, October 11, 2010

Dengue Fever Outbreak in Fla. Leads Back to CIA


Weaponized Disease Hits Delhi as Economy Soars Due to Foreign Investments

These are the same weaponized diseases plaguing Central Africa. My how those pesky skeeters get around; http://meatsubs.blogspot.com/2010/10/chikungunya-dengue-epidemic-in-oil-rich.html

The Importance of Delhi, 1938; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiSFxKMO_2Q
Delhi Wiki; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delhi



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Sat 9 Oct 2010

Source: OneIndia News [edited]


After a gap of one month, dengue fear hit the capital once again on Friday,

8 Oct [2010], when 79 new cases were reported. The total number of dengue

cases mounted to 3938, stated a hospital official on 8 Oct [2010]. [Thus

far] in 2010, 7 people have died of the mosquitoborne disease.

Along with the dengue cases, 20 new chikungunya cases have been reported

recently in the capital, which has been claimed to be one of the cleaned

cities for being the Commonwealth Games' organiser.


communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail


[The previous ProMED-mail post (archive no. 20100929.3524) reported the

total number of chikungunya cases in Delhi at 8, as of 22 Sep 2010. Now,

the report above indicates that the total has reached 20. This is a mixed

chikungunya/dengue outbreak that shows no indication of slowing. Both

viruses are transmitted by the same _Aedes_ mosquito vector.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of India, showing the location of

Delhi, can be accessed at . - Mod.TY]

[see also:

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (51) 20101004.3593

Chikungunya (27) - India: (MH) 20101003.3581

Chikungunya & dengue - India (02): (DL) 20100929.3524

Chikungunya & dengue - India: (TN) conf. 20100212.0500



Chikungunya (40): India (TN), susp. 20091020.3612

Chikungunya (36): India (OR), susp 20091003.3442

Chikungunya (33): India (TN) 20090917.3258

Chikungunya (32): India (TN) susp 20090914.3237

Chikungunya (31): India (AP) 20090907.3145

Chikungunya (29): India (TN) 20090805.2763

Chikungunya (28): India (GA) 20090731.2680

Chikungunya (27): India (KL) RFI 20090730.2666

Chikungunya (26): India (GA) 20090725.2627

Undiagnosed illness - India: (GA) RFI 20090722.2594

Chikungunya (25): Malaysia, India (GA) 20090705.2410

Chikungunya (22): India (KA) susp. 20090621.2282

Chikungunya (10): India (KA) susp. 20090506.1692

Chikungunya (04): India (GJ) 20090314.1050]



ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that

are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the

information, and of any statements or opinions based

thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in

using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID

and its associated service providers shall not be held

responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any

damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted

or archived material.


Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:


Visit ProMED-mail's web site at .

Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to

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name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-

scribe at .

For assistance from a human being, send mail to:




Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[62] Delhi's manufacturing industry has also grown considerably as many consumer goods industries have established manufacturing units and headquarters in and around Delhi. Delhi's large consumer market, coupled with the easy availability of skilled labour, has attracted foreign investment in Delhi. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers while the number of industrial units was 129,000.[63]

Construction, power, telecommunications, health and community services, and real estate form integral parts of Delhi's economy. Delhi has India's largest and one of the fastest growing retail industries.[64] As a result, land prices are booming and Delhi is currently ranked the 7th most expensive office hotspot in the world, with prices at $145.16 per square foot.[65] As in the rest of India, the fast growth of retail is expected to affect the traditional unorganized retail trading system.[66]

[edit] Utility services

The headquarters of the New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC). On the foreground is Jantar Mantar.The water supply in Delhi is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2006, it supplied 650 MGD (million gallons per day) of water, while the water demand for 2005–06 was estimated to be 963 MGD.[67] The rest of the demand is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is the largest water source for DJB, followed by river Yamuna and Ganges.[67] With falling groundwater level and rising population density, Delhi faces severely acute water shortage. Delhi daily produces 8000 tonnes of solid wastes which is dumped at three landfill sites by MCD.[68] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[69] A large portion of the sewerage flows untreated into the river Yamuna.[69]

The city's per capita electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh but actual demand is much more.[70] In 1997, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) replaced Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking which was managed by the MCD. The DVB itself cannot generate adequate power to meet the city's demand and borrows power from India's Northern Region Grid. As a result, Delhi faces a power shortage resulting in frequent blackouts and brownouts, especially during the summer season when energy demand is at its peak. Several industrial units in Delhi rely on their own electrical generators to meet their electric demand and for back up during Delhi's frequent and disruptive power cuts. A few years ago, the power sector in Delhi was handed over to private companies. The distribution of electricity is carried out by companies run by Tata Power and Reliance Energy. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[71]

State-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises like Vodafone Essar, Airtel, Idea cellular, Reliance Infocomm, and Tata Indicom provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. In May 2008, Airtel alone had approximately 4 million cellular subscribers in Delhi.[72] Cellular coverage is extensive, and both GSM and CDMA (from Reliance and Tata Indicom) services are available. Affordable broadband penetration is increasing in the city.[73]

[edit] Transport

Main article: Transport in Delhi

The Indira Gandhi International Airport is one of the busiest airports in South Asia.[74] Shown here is Terminal 1D of the airport.

The Delhi Metro has an average ridership of 1,500,000 commuters per day and runs at an operational profit.[75]

The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses, totaling 9000[44][76]Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and a metro rail system.

Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand.[77] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses.[78] Delhi BRTS is Bus rapid transit serving the city which runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi as well as the satellite city of Gurgaon in the neighbouring Haryana and Noida in neighbouring Uttar Pradesh. As of April 2010, the metro consists of five lines with a total length of 111 km (69 mi) and 98 stations while several other lines are under construction.[79]

Line 1 runs between Rithala and Shahdara, Line 2 runs between Jahangirpuri and the Central Secretariat and Line 3 runs between Dwarka Sector 9 and Noida City Centre. Line 4 runs between Yamuna Bank and Ananad Vihar. The fifth line runs from Inderlok to Mundka. Phase-II of the network is under construction and will have a total length of 128 km. It is expected to be completed by 2010.[80] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II will cost an additional US$4.3 billion.[81] Phase-III and IV will be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, creating a network spanning 413.8 km, longer than that of the London Underground.[82]

Auto rickshaws are a popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and are yellow and green in colour. Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. Private operators operate most taxis, and most neighborhoods have a taxi stand from which taxis can be ordered or picked up. In addition, air-conditioned radio taxis, which can be ordered by calling a central number, have become increasingly popular, charging a flat rate of . 15 per kilometre.

Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi Railway Station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla.[77] Delhi is connected to other cities through many highways and expressways. Delhi currently has three expressways and three are under construction to connect it with its prosperous and commercial suburbs. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with two prosperous suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.

Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is situated in the western corner of Delhi and serves as the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers,[83][84] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 is currently under construction and will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually by 2010.[85] Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.[83] Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose.[86]

Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[77] At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India.[77] Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[87]

Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. As of 2008. Also, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, i.e., Delhi NCR is 112 lakhs (11.2 million).[88] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[89] In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[77] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles of Delhi to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.[90]

Saturday, October 9, 2010

African Natives Suffer From Weaponized Disease Epidemic as Plans to Increase Oil Production Move Forward in Gabon

Chikungunya & Dengue EPIDEMIC in OIL RICH Gabon, Africa

Gabon is located in West Central Africa, sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, and with the Republic of the Congo curving around the east and south. The Gulf of Guinea, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean is to the west. It has an estimated population of 1, 500,000 people. Gabon is more prosperous than most nearby countries, with a per capita income four times the average for sub-Saharn Africa. This is in large part due to offshore oil production. There are plans for increased production by the end of the year 2010. Gabon is also rich in uranium deposits. Gabons principal trading partners are the US, China and Russia for exports while importing mainly from France.

On December 5, 2007, JP Morgan acted as Joint-Bookrunner on the Gabonese Republics debut international US1$Billion 10yr bond issue.

More on Gabon; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabon

Both of these diseases are normally spread by a certain species of misquito, and have been weaponized over the years by several countries, including the US; (Chikungunya)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chikungunya
(Dengue) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever
 and now, it has appeared in two more neighboring towns, and by the report in the link below, the authorities are not equipt to combat or control the spread;  (see report in link below)

and the only thing the Health Workers can do for the people is to pass out mosquito nets and school them on mosquito eradication.

Friday, October 8, 2010

PSP Red Tide WARNING / Shellfish, BC

Be sure to see my text in red to see the important stuff they ARE NOT telling us about this disease.


A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society of Infectious Diseases
Date: 7 Oct 2010
Source: Benzinga.com
CFIA/Health Hazard Alert: Certain Raw Oysters and Mussels Sold in British Columbia May Contain Paralytic Shellfish Toxin

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is warning the public not to serve or consume the
raw oysters and mussels described below because these products may contain paralytic shellfish
toxins that can cause illness if consumed.
The following oysters and mussels, harvested from
Subarea 15-4, are affected by this alert:
Producer Product Size Lot code Harvest Date

Albion Fisheries Ltd. Oyster N/Shell 5 dozen Albion Lot # OCT03/10
# 1906 Royal Miyagi XS 173668 & 173716

Albion Fisheries Ltd Oyster N/Shell 5 dozen Albion Lot # OCT03/10

# 1906 Little Wing 173667
Aquatec Seafoods Ltd. Mussels Various Landfile # OCT04/10

Taylor Shellfish Canada ULC Gallow Mussles Various Landfile # OCT03/10

DBA Fanny Bay Oysters 2405189

These products were distributed to various retail and institutional clients in British Columbia.
Also, these products may have been sold in smaller quantities at some retail seafood counters. Consumers who are unsure whether they have the affected products are advised to check with their retailer or supplier.

There have been no reported cases of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) associated with the consumption of these products.

Paralytic shellfish toxins are a group of natural toxins that sometimes accumulate in bivalve shellfish that include oysters, clams, scallops, mussels and cockles.

 (PSP is the most deadly naturally occurring disease known to man, and is the most fatal to man; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_tide because of its Saxitoxin content; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxitoxin .It was used by our military as a biological weapon. It is listed in schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons Convention. According to the book Spycraft, U-2 spyplane pilots were provided with needles containing saxitoxin to be used for suicide in the event escape was impossible. The United States military isolated saxitoxin and assigned it the chemical weapon designation TZ. For a lung effect by aerosol, the median lethal dosage (LCt50) of TZ is 5 mg·min/m³. Due to its high aerobiological decay rate (e.g., ~17%/min) and production cost, it was weaponized in tainted flechettes for special operations.Though its early isolation and characterization were from military efforts, saxitoxin has been more important to cellular research in delineating the function of the sodium channel. )

Non-bivalve shellfish, such  as whelks, can also accumulate PSP toxins. These toxins can cause PSP if consumed. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, hands and feet, and difficulty swallowing. In severe situations, this can proceed to difficulty walking, muscle paralysis, respiratory paralysis and death in as quickly as 12 hours.

The shellfish processors are voluntarily recalling the affected products from the marketplace. The CFIA is monitoring the effectiveness of the recall.

["Red tide is caused by several toxic algae.]
Depending upon the toxin, it is also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), because it
causes shellfish to be toxic for consumption.

PSP is a significant problem in several geographic areas, especially in both the east and
the west coasts of the US. Produced by several closely related species in the genus
Alexandrium_, PSP toxins are responsible for persistent problems due to their accumulation in
filter-feeding shellfish; but they also move through the food chain, affecting zooplankton,
fish larvae, adult fish, and even birds and marine mammals.

Alexandrium_ blooms generally do not involve large-cell accumulations that discolor the water
and may instead be invisible below the water surface. Low-density populations can cause severe
problems due to the high potency of the toxins produced._Alexandrium_ spp. can grow in
relatively pristine waters, and it is difficult to argue that anthropogenic nutrient inputs are
stimulating the blooms. These characteristics are important when considering mitigation and control strategies.

Often PSP is associated with red tides or algal blooms. Red tide is caused by an organism called
_Karenia brevis_, which in high concentrations can make the water look red. The organism releases a toxin that paralyzes the respiratory system of fish and other marine life. Airborne toxins, water spray, and splashes in an outbreak have kept people from beaches while leaving others with irritated eyes and throats.
Red tide irritates the skin of people exposed to it and can cause itchy eyes, scratchy throats, and coughs. Harvesting from affected areas for personal consumption is discouraged. Red tide poisoning symptoms include nausea and dizziness and may last for several days. Previously the organism causing red tide was
known as _Gymnodinium breve_, but it has been reclassified in the taxonomy of dinoflagellates.
Its new name is _Karenia brevis_, or _K. brevis_.

South Africa (W. Cape): red tide 20070325.1039). - Mod.TG]
[see also:2007]

Red tide, aquatic mammals - USA: (FL) 20071231.4199
Paralytic shellfish poisoning, human - USA (ME) 20070802.2508
Manatee deaths, red tide - USA (FL) 20070403.112
Red tide, shellfish - USA (WA) 20060824.2388
Red tide - USA (TX) 20051002.2886
Red tide - USA (FL) (06) 20050925.2829
Red tide- USA (FL) (05): sea turtles 20050819.2437
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (04) 20050626.1800
Red tide - USA (ME) (02) 20050622.1752
Red tide - USA (ME) 20050618.1718
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (03) 20050612.1648
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (02) 20050531.1508
Red tide - USA (FL) (04) 20050529.1493
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) 20050521.1406
Red tide - USA (FL)(03): human disease 20050329.0906
Red tide - USA (FL)(02): manatee deaths 20050311.0722
Red tide - USA (FL): alert 20050205.0400]

Was AIDS Virus Created in Military Lab for Use as Bioweapon on US Citizens?

Persons with AIDS vs. Uncle Sam Class Action Lawsuit

by Eric Taylor

The Philadelphia-based group, Brotherly Lovers, which is presently in the process of petitioning the U.S. Federal Court to hear the case

for Congressionally-approved AIDS biowarfare by the Pentagon, has moved its headquarters to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Since March

of this year, Brotherly Lovers has received 48 signed petitions from 9 states, including 5 physicians and 2 attorneys. Among the

evidence: One week after the New York City Stonewall Riot, which spearheaded the Gay Rights Movement, Pentagon spokesman, Dr.

Ronald MacArthur, testified before Congress July 1, 1969: The dramatic progress being made in the field of molecular biology led us to

investigate the relevance of this field of science to biological warfare. A small group of experts considered this matter and provided the

following observation:

1. All biological agents up to the present time are representative of naturally occurring disease, and are thus known by scientists

throughout the world. They are easily available to qualified scientists for research, either for offensive or defensive purposes.

2. Within the next five to ten years, it would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain

important aspects from any known disease-causing organism. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological

and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease.

3. A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately five years at a total cost of $10 million.

-Department of Defense appropriations for 1970, House of Representatives Subcommittee, p. 129, courtesy of the Freedom of

Information Act.)

Further compelling evidence appears in the 1972 Bulletin of the United National World Health Organization in an article entitled

"Virus-Associated Immunopathology: Animal models and Implications for Human Disease." It states: "An attempt should be made to

ascertain whether viruses can, in fact, exert selective effects on immune function, e.g. by . . . affecting T cell function as opposed to B cell

function. The possibility should also be looked into that the immune response to the virus itself may be impaired if the infecting virus

damages more or less selectively the cells responding to the viral antigens."

Both proposals are exact definitions of AIDS. The development of such an immunosuppressive virus is described in Progressive Medical

Virology, "Immunodepression by Oncogenic Viruses," 14: 1-35, 1972; Nature, "Common Genetic Alternations of RNA Tumor Viruses

Grown in Human Cells," 230:445-447, 1972; Texas Medicine, "Cross-species Transmission of Mammalian RNA Tumor Viruses,"

69:65-75, 1973; and The Journal of Experimental Medicine, "Immunosuppressive Activity of a Subline of Mouse El-4 Lymphoma,"

143:187-205, 1976.

Dr. Robert Strecker, M.D., Ph.D., and Ted Strecker, Esq., have compiled a list of 50 other articles from respected scientific journals that

led them to conclude that AIDS was predicted, requested, produced and released by the U.S. Government via smallpox vaccinations in

Africa and hepatitis B vaccinations in America under the supervision of Dr. Wolf Szmuness. The list, "AIDS Reference," can be

obtained by writing to The Strecker Group, 1216 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90017. Their video, The Strecker Memorandum

condenses this information into a 90-minute tour de force. I have this tape.

Dr. Alan Cantwell, Jr., M.D., has compiled two well-documented books on the subject: AIDS and the Doctors of Death, 1986 (ISBN

0-917211-25-1) and Queer Blood, 1993 (IBSN 0-917211-26-X). Dr. Cantwell initially dismissed AIDS biowarfare as absurd until he

became one of the few to actually investigate the evidence. His book was banned by World Health Organization officials at the 1989

AIDS conference in Canada. (Were they uncertain that the "experts" were capable of coming to their own conclusions?) AIDS specialist

and author Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, M.D., endorses Cantwell's research. William Cooper resigned from the CIA after 30 years service

upon gaining access to documents verifying that AIDS was created as population control, after previous birth control efforts failed.

Cooper tours the country giving lectures in order to protect himself with a high profile and has written a book entitled Behold a Pale

Horse, available from The William Cooper Foundation, Suite 301, 19744 Beach Blvd., Huntington Beach, CA 92648.

Newspaper articles on AIDS biowarfare have appeared in the New Delhi Patriot (7/4/84), the Soviet Literaturnya Gazeta (10/30/85), the

London Sunday Express (10/26/86), and The New York Native (4/13/87). An anonymous source claiming to have worked for the Fort

Detrick Biological Warfare Lab in Bethesda, Maryland, told the Native that the AIDS biowar program was called "Operation Firm

Hand." Dan Rather reported the mounting AIDS biowarfare accusations on the CBS Evening News, 3/30/87, incurring the wrath of the

Rea­p;gan administration, which simplistically labeled it "Soviet propaganda." Ironically, Dr. Cantwell's research is often dismissed

as "Right Wing fanaticism."

Upon examining evidence compiled by award-winning journalist Peter MacKenzie in a five-part series published in the Clear Lake (CA)

Independent, 6/22/93-7/20/93, Washington State Supreme Court Justice William Goodloe (retired) wrote: "I have heard and seen reports

of the possible artificial origin of the AIDS virus, but until this report, have not seen such compelling evidence of its truth. Mr.

MacKenzie has assembled a remarkable documentation of heretofore unpublished data, and an immediate governmental investigation at

the highest level should be commenced." Judge Goodloe can be faxed at (206) 451-3959.

Regrettably, without even examining the extensive documentation, this issue is unthinkable to most people. Yet, the U.S. Army has a

notorious history of germ warfare. The first known case of germ warfare occurred a century ago when the U.S. Army gave freezing Plains

Indians smallpox-infected blankets, intentionally decimating countless Native Americans. Furthermore, the recent deadly "Navajo Flu"

turns out to be the Hanta virus, which Science Magazine, 6/11/93, reported had long been under study by the Pentagon for biological

warfare purposes.

Vlad the Bad & Dmitry the Gitry TagTeam Is Here. http://premier.gov.ru/eng, http://wikileaks.org/

TO RUSSOPHOBIC WEST: when the shit hits the fan it AIN'T gonna be a pretty picture. Be afraid, be very afraid! Reply With Quote


09-01-2004 05:18 AM #4 Cosssack

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Join Date:Oct 2003

Location:Confederation Suisse

Posts:41,738The book A Higher Form of Killing, by Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, 1982, documents hundreds of incidents in which the U.S.

Army experimented upon soldiers and civilians with chemicals and viruses-sometimes upon entire cities like San Francisco. The May 6,

1994, edition of the CBS Evening News reported that the AIDS-like "Gulf War Syndrome," incapacitating thousands of Gulf War vets

and their families, was determined not to be the result of Iraqi biowarfare, as claimed by the Pentagon, but, rather, the result of

experimental vaccinations given to the troops before the war. (HIV-1 is likewise linked to experimental hepatitis B vaccinations first

given to 1,083 healthy Gay men from New York City in November 1978. The first case of HIV-1 infection appeared in New York City in

January 1979, and since then most of the recipients have died of AIDS.)

Recent headlines report that Congressional hearings are currently underway to recompense thousands of minority victims of radiation

experiments conducted by the U.S. military during the 1950s and '60s. Yet another gruesome example is the Tuskagee Syphilis

Experiment, wherein 400 Black sharecroppers were denied treatment for syphilis from 1932 to 1972 so that the U.S. government could

study the long-term effects of the disease. Having been withheld the penicillin cure, they died agonizing deaths, and their syphilis-infected

widows were recompensed by the government (James Jones, Bad Blood, 1981, Free Press, NY).

With all of these acknowledged precedents, why is the thought of AIDS biowarfare so unthinkable to most people? Perhaps it is because

people don't do much thinking anymore, relying on headlines, soundbites and docudramas as their only source of information. That TV

Guide, Parade Magazine, People, and The National Enquirer are the best-selling publications in America speaks for itself. Dr. Joseph

Sonnabend, M.D.-one of the first and foremost AIDS experts-complains that "part of the problem today is that science writers are a

pretty limp lot. They don't do any investigating. They just sit there and receive their press kits . . . They are so gullible, these science

writers now-lazy and gullible" (interview 12/92).

What is worse than gullibility and laziness is silence. Even the Gay community, for the most part, ignores this issue. Few Gay papers

have the guts to cover it. Apparently red ribbons, quilts, parades, and benefits reassure us that something is being done. Now that AZT

proves to be as deadly as HIV, after being prescribed even to asymptomatic patients for a decade, one would think we would begin to

suspect that something stinks. AZT was banned in 1957 by the FDA because it was killing the people it was supposed to be helping

(Health Consciousness Magazine 8/91). AIDS patients appear to be guinea pigs for hundreds of toxic drugs, while safe treatments that

are clinically proven to eliminate AIDS symptoms, such as acemannan, are completely ignored (Medical World News 12/87 and The

Journal of Advancement in Medicine, Vol 3, No. 4, Winter 1990).

Denial is a powerful psychological mechanism that must be overcome if we are ever to get to the bottom of AIDS. The truth is slowly

surfacing. For instance, 60 Minutes (6/19/94) presented a very strong case that Kimberly Bergalis and five other plaintiffs who won a $10

million settlement for supposedly contracting AIDS from their dentist, Dr. David Acer, all lied about their sex lives. Kimberly, a

self-proclaimed "virgin," had been diagnosed with the STD genital warts, and had previously admitted on videotape to engaging in sex

with two men. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) overlooked conflicted testimony by all six plaintiffs and used highly

questionable DNA tests to generate public hysteria and homophobia in the sensationalized case. Dr. Acer was accused of first degree

murder by the media. (The CDC also played a major role in the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment and the hepatitis B vaccine trial.)

Because the U.S. government enjoys immunity from being sued by individuals, it is essential that hundreds of signed petitions from

HIV-positive people, their families and friends in all 50 states be received by Brotherly Lovers in order to initiate this class action suit.

Concerned parties should write a brief letter stating, to quote Washington State Supreme Court Justice William Goodloe, "I have heard

and seen reports of the possible artificial origin of the AIDS virus . . . and an immediate governmental investigation at the highest level

should be commenced."

Send to Eric Taylor, 2028 Murdstone Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15241.