Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Saturday, July 10, 2010


A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

[1] Florida
Date: 9 Jul 2010
Source: ABC-7.com [edited]

Collier horse dies from mosquito-borne EEE
A 3rd horse has died in Collier County, Florida, in less than a month
from Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), according to health
officials. Experts say this is a warning to all county residents --
as humans can also get the disease. The 3 horse deaths come after 24
years of no EEE cases at all in Collier.

Health officials say with the 3 deaths so early in mosquito season,
it's time for people to get serious about protecting themselves and
their animals. Horses should be vaccinated -- check with your
veterinarian on how best to get that done.

EEE symptoms in humans develop 3-10 days after the bite of an
infected mosquito. They include sudden onset of fever, general muscle
pains, and a headache of increasing severity.

Experts say symptoms can become more severe over 1 to 2 weeks and
those infected will either recover or show onset of inflammation of
the brain (encephalitis) with seizures and vomiting.

Communicated by:

[2] Florida
Date: 9 Jul 2010
Source: JC Floridian [edited]

The Jackson County Health Department has recently discovered 2 horses
in the county that have tested positive for Eastern equine
encephalitis (EEE), with the most recent case from Piney Grove Road,
southwest of Cottondale. County officials were notified Wednesday of
the confirming test results.

Environmental Health Director T.G. Harkrider Jr. says the risk of
transmission to humans has now increased for this area.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, EEE is a
rare but serious viral disease spread by mosquitoes that can affect
people and horses. It is one of the most severe mosquito-transmitted
diseases in the United States with approximately 33 percent mortality
and significant brain damage in most survivors. There is no specific
treatment for EEE; care is based on symptoms.

Jackson County Health Department (JCHD) officials remind residents
and visitors to try to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes in an effort
to avoid contracting encephalitis disease.

Health Department officials are continuing with surveillance and
prevention efforts.

"We encourage everyone to take basic precautions to help limit
exposure by following the our prevention recommendations," Harkrider
said. "Follow the '5 D's'."

The JCHD "5 D's" for mosquito protection are the following:
- Dusk and Dawn: Avoid being outdoors when mosquitoes are seeking
blood. For many species, this is during the dusk and dawn hours.
- Dress: Wear clothing that covers most of your skin.
- DEET: When the potential exists for exposure to mosquitoes,
repellents containing DEET are recommended. Picaridin, oil of lemon
eucalyptus, and IR3535 are other repellent options.
- Drainage: Check around your home to rid the area of standing water,
which is where mosquitoes can lay their eggs.

Harkrider says that the elimination of breeding sites is one of the
keys to prevention. He offers the following tips for eliminating
mosquito breeding sites:
- Clean out eaves, troughs and gutters.
- Remove old tires or drill holes in those used in playgrounds to drain.
- Turn over or remove empty plastic pots.
- Pick up all beverage containers and cups.
- Check tarps on boats or other equipment that may collect water.
- Pump out bilges on boats.
- Replace water in birdbaths and pet or other animal feeding dishes
at least once a week.
- Change water in plant trays, including hanging plants, at least once a week.
- Remove vegetation or obstructions in drainage ditches that prevent
the flow of water.

Florida Department of Health (DOH) continues to conduct statewide
surveillance for mosquito borne illnesses, including West Nile virus
infections, EEE, St. Louis encephalitis, malaria, and dengue.
Residents of Florida are encouraged to report dead birds via the Web

For more information on mosquito-borne illnesses, visit DOH's
Environmental Health Web site at
call the West Nile Virus Hotline at 1-888-880-5782, or call your
local county health department.

Communicated by:

[3] Georgia
Date: 9 Jul 2010
Source: The horse.com [edited]

Just one week after the Florida Agriculture and Consumer Services
Commissioner announced a spike in Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)
cases , the
Georgia Division of Public Health has confirmed 2 positive cases of
EEE in horses found in Brooks County on 8 Jul 2010. So far, these are
the only EEE cases reported in Georgia this year [2010].

EEE is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is
transmitted to horses by infected mosquitoes. Horse owners are
strongly encouraged to vaccinate against mosquito-borne diseases like
EEE and West Nile virus (WNV). Georgia has seen confirmed human cases
of WNV in Dougherty and Clayton County already this year, but there
are no reports of horses confirmed with WNV.

[Byline: Megan Arszman]

Communicated by:

[Apparently weather conditions of some rain along with some warm
weather on the east coast of the US have combined to begin the EEE
season. Horse owners are encouraged -- strongly encouraged -- to
vaccinate those horses now, and to use mosquito repellent designed
for horses. Keep fans going in the barns, and clean water troughs in
the barn and paddock area to prevent mosquito larvae from developing.

Human beings should heed the advice in the articles about protecting
themselves from mosquitoes. - Mod.TG]

[The interactive HealthMap/ProMED map for Florida is available at:
. Georgia is at:
- CopyEd.EJP]

[see also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (FL) 20100708.2274
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): (FL) 20100630.2178
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) 20100627.2146
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) sentinel avian 20100623.2101
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL) 20100527.1755
Eastern equine encephalitis - Panama (04): (DR, PN), susp. 20100707.2264
Eastern equine encephalitis - Panama (03): (DR, PN) 20100627.2148
Eastern equine encephalitis - Panama (02): (DR, PN) 20100625.2112
Eastern equine encephalitis - Panama: (DR, PN) 20100621.2080)
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (22): (NC) 20091217.4260
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (21): (NH), mosquito surveillance
Eastern equine encephalitis - Canada (04): (NS) 20091107.3845
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Belize (02): (CY) 20091025.3690
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Belize (CY) OIE 20091019.3593
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (20): (RI) 20091014.3543
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - Canada: (NS) 20091001.3416
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (17): (NY) human 20091001.3413
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (15): (NH) emu 20090929.3397
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (10): (ME) 20090905.3127
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine, alpaca - USA: (NC, VA) 20090828.3034
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (05): (MO, VA) 20090714.2507
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (03): (FL) 20090701.2378
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA: (GA) 20090613.2197]

Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (04): (FL) 20080724.2241
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (FL) 20080705.2045
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA: (FL) 20080323.1101
Eastern equine encephalitis, equine - USA (02): (GA) 20080622.1932]

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