Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Dengue, Worldwide

One Known Example from the Late 1950s: The US Army releases swarms of specially bred mosquitoes in Georgia and Florida as part of an experiment aimed at determining if disease-bearing insects could be used as carriers of biological weapons. The mosquitoes are of the Aedes Aegypti type, which is a carrier of dengue fever. [Blum, 1995, pp. 344]


A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:
[1] Puerto Rico
[2] Dominican Republic
[3] Honduras
[4] Honduras (military)
[5] Venezuela
[6] Brazil (Mato Grosso)
[7] Philippines (Metro Manila)
[8] Philippines (Southern Mindanao)
[9] Philippines (Northern Mindanao)
[10] Viet Nam
[11] Singapore

[1] Puerto Rico
Date: Mon 5 Jul 2010
Source: Canadian Press (CP) [edited]

Puerto Rico's top health official warned Monday [5 Jul 2010] that the
US island could face its worst-ever dengue fever outbreak if people
don't act quickly to destroy breeding areas for disease
[virus]-spreading mosquitoes. Health Secretary Lorenzo Gonzalez
Feliciano issued the warning after a 37-year-old woman from the
northern town of Hatillo died of the hemorrhagic form [DHF] of the
tropical virus. Her death was the 3rd fatality from dengue fever so
far this year [2010] on the island.

Unless islanders take urgent measures to eradicate bug [_Aedes_
mosquito] breeding areas by draining standing water near their
houses, the Caribbean territory will experience a public health
crisis in coming months, Gonzalez said. "If we do not act now, we
will see a catastrophe in the months of August and September that
could reach record numbers and would make it much more difficult to
control," said Gonzalez, who also urged people to sleep under
mosquito nets and wear repellent.

The government has dispatched trucks to neighbourhoods and schools to
spray a mist that kills mosquitoes, but Gonzalez said too many Puerto
Ricans have let down their guard against the virus. He urged
islanders to report neighbours to authorities if they leave stagnant
water on their property. Damp, hot weather creates favourable
mosquito breeding conditions, so the situation may be worsened by the
unusually wet weather that soaked Puerto Rico in May and June [2010].

Puerto Rico's worst dengue outbreak was in 1998, when the virus
sickened 17 000 and caused 19 deaths.

Dengue has no vaccine. It generally causes fever, headaches, and
extreme joint and muscle pain. Most sufferers recover within a week.
The more severe hemorrhagic form [DHF] can be deadly.

Once thought to have been nearly eliminated from Latin America,
dengue has gained strength in the region since the early 1980s, in
part because tourism and migration are circulating 4 different
strains [dengue virus serotypes], increasing the risk of multiple
exposure and making it more likely victims will come down with the
hemorrhagic form.

[Byline: David McFadden]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[Maps of Puerto Rico are available at the URL above and at
. - Mod.TY]

[2] Dominican Republic
Date: Mon 12 Jul 2010
Source: El Nacional [in Spanish, trans. & summ Mod.TY, edited]

The President of the Dominican Republic College of Physicians
requested this Monday [12 Jul 2010] that the Minister of Public
Health ask President Leonel Fernandez to declare a state of emergency
in face of the overwhelming cases of dengue. Meanwhile, the Minister
of Public Health, Dr Bautista Rojas Gomez, confirmed today [12 Jul
2010] that dengue cases have increased in the provinces of Duarte,
San Cristobal, and Peravia. Other provinces under surveillance are
Santiago, San Jose de Ocoa, and Santo Domingo. He indicated that the
increase in cases was not just in Bani but in San Pedro de Macoris as
well, where this past Saturday [10 Jul 2010], the hospitals did not
have one available bed, and the cases that came in were referred to
Santo Domingo.

The head of Public Health, Dr Rojas Gomez, assured everyone that in
the affected provinces, "day-to-day we continue to attend people
affected by dengue, and there we apply the norms and protocols
indicated for these cases." He admitted that the number of [dengue]
cases has increased and those areas having more [cases] are being
helped out." He said that it is normal to have an increase in dengue
[cases] between [epidemiological] weeks 26-40, "but we are prepared
to handle this disease. In each province, we have installed an
anti-dengue Situation Table [unit]. Up to this week [week ending 11
Jul 2010], we have had 4591 cases, of which 536 are DHF, with no
deaths. This past weekend [10-11 Jul 2010] 27 [dengue] patients were
admitted [to hospital].

[Byline: Teofilo Bonilla]

Communicated by:

[It would be of interest to know which dengue virus serotype(s)
is(are) circulating there.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of the
Dominican Republic in the Caribbean can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[3] Honduras
Date: Sun 4 Jul 2010
Source: Proceso Digital [in Spanish, trans Corr.SB, edited]

The high incidence of dengue in Honduras has seriously impaired the
ability to care for the sick in public and private hospitals, it was
reported today [4 Jul 2010]. The "rampant" epidemic, as described by
experts, has killed 16 people, many of them children, representing 4
more deaths than recorded in the entire year of 2009. The National
Commission on Certification of Dengue reported late last week [week
of 28 Jun 2010] that 515 cases of DHF and 14 609 cases of classical
dengue fever had been recorded.

The wards of public and private hospitals are overwhelmed by the
presence of hundreds of people seeking medical attention. In the
Teaching Hospital, laboratory staff told the press that they cannot
keep pace with the demands of the required tests in the hospital to
make a decision on whether or not to hospitalize a patient.

The highest incidence (of the disease) occurs in the departments
[state or province equivalents] of Francisco Morazan, El Paraiso,
Comayagua, Olancho, and Cortes.

The government has declared a health emergency, under which they have
stepped up operations to destroy the mosquito breeding places of
_Aedes aegypti_, the transmitter of the disease [virus].

The former Health Minister Elsa Palou told reporters today [4 Jul
2010] that the crisis has been generated by the neglect of the
problem in 2009. "What is happening now is the result of preventive
actions not being taken in 2009, and that, so far in 2010, they have
not been undertaken either," said the former official, who questioned
the aerial spraying currently being undertaken by the health
authorities to destroy the mosquito that transmits the disease
[virus]. "In my opinion, this aerial spraying is no good, because the
mosquito does not fly as high as the height reached by the plane, and
secondly, insecticide that kills the adult mosquitoes, the ones that
fly, is not killing mosquito larvae," she said.

She explained that the effect of the spraying will last 3-5 days, and
then all the mosquitoes that were larval will start to emerge [as
adults]. I think the money being spent on spraying would be more
effective if used in destruction of [mosquito] breeding sites; they
could hire people to help the destruction of those breeding sites, in
cleaning up vacant lots, all activities that need to be done," she
said. Roxana Araujo, head of the Dengue Department of the Health
Ministry, defended herself from Palou's criticism, saying that aerial
spraying has been hired on an hourly rate for inaccessible places
[which nonetheless will provide only temporary vector mosquito
reduction. - Mod.TY]

Palou said that currently in Tegucigalpa, both public and private
[health] sectors, cannot keep up to serve patients. "In the public
hospitals, we are overflowing with patients with DHF," she said. In
private hospitals, they have had to open rooms that were closed in
order to care for patients with dengue.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[In the 9 Jul 2010 edition of La Prensa.hn (in Spanish)
physicians of the Teaching Hospital stated on 8 Jul 2010 that the
Secretariat of Health "hides the numbers", and that the dengue deaths
are 50 and not 19, as has been officially [stated] by the health
authorities. The Minister said that the [Health] Secretariat has 16
certified cases of DHF and that they are redoubling their activities
to combat the virus. Wednesday [7 Jul 2010], the Dengue Certification
Commission officially recognized the last 3 victims. They were
children who died between the weekend and Monday [5 Jul 2010],
raising the number of [dengue] deaths to 19. As for the suspected
[dengue] death of an adolescent in the Mario Rivas Hospital, he said
that this death has not been registered [as a dengue death]. "Just
because a person has suffered a fever does not signify that they are
a dengue victim. It is important that these cases be laboratory
confirmed to not give bad information," the official stated.

It would be of interest to know the basis on which the 50 stated
dengue deaths in the Teaching Hospital were made, especially how many
were laboratory confirmed.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of
Honduras in Central America can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[4] Honduras (military)
Date: Tue 6 Jul 2010
Source: El Heraldo [in Spanish, trans. Corr.SB, summ. Mod.TY, edited]

The members of the army have been attacked by the [mosquito] _Aedes
aegypti_ in recent weeks. An average of 50-60 troops on a weekly
basis are obliged to be relieved [from duty] after showing symptoms
of dengue. Orlando Francisco Garcia, hospital administrator,
explained that currently they have a total of 42 beds in the wards to
care for soldiers who are positive for the disease. "All of our
medical care is available for members of the institution [the
military] and its affiliates, but we also have medical outreach
programs for the civilian population, should they ask for our
assistance," said the infantry colonel. According to him, the
Military Hospital provides service to a population of more than 100
000 people. "So far this month [July 2010], we have attended to more
than 35 civilian patients, because although the capacity that we have
is limited, we cannot fail to assist a patient who needs it," Garcia said.

According to Lieutenant Silvia Padilla, the majority of patients
coming to hospital are for classical dengue fever. "Patients remain
in their rooms about 5 days, with continuous 24-hour surveillance,"
said Padilla.

The military hospital has installed a triage area, which serves as a
filter to achieve a more timely diagnosis of patients who present
with symptoms of the disease. Following the triage, they are sent to
the emergency [unit] in order to initiate treatment and obtain a
better assessment. After being assisted in the emergency [unit], if
they require hospitalization, they are admitted to the wards, where
specially trained staff monitor each of the patients.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[Unfortunately, the number of individual dengue cases to date is not
given, nor is the time period during which the outbreak is occurring. - Mod.TY]

[5] Venezuela
Date: Wed 7 Jul 2010
Source: El Universal [edited]

Official reports show that 48 581 Venezuelans were diagnosed with
dengue as of 19 Jun 2010. The data were disclosed in the 24th
Epidemiological Bulletin released by the Ministry of Health for the
week from 13-19 Jun 2010. In the preface of the document, the
Ministry of Health conceded that dengue cases climbed 81.8 percent
and reported a morbidity rate of 168.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants.
However, they warned that the disease has performed similarly in the
whole continent.

"Dengue fever and its most severe form, DHF, are showing increasing
incidence rates throughout the world," the bulletin stressed. In the
EW 23 Epidemiological Bulletin published by the Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO), authors claimed that in percentage terms, dengue
incidence rates increased by 165 percent between 22 Apr-14 Jun this
year [2010].

According to the Health Ministry's 24th Epidemiological Bulletin, 9.6
percent of the total number of patients (48 581 cases of dengue
fever) have contracted DHF. During the week between 13-19 Jun [2010],
which was the period covered in the bulletin, 3417 probable cases of
dengue fever were reported in Venezuela, out of which 277 cases (8.1
percent) were of DHF.

The states with the highest incidence of the disease are Miranda (411
cases), Merida (410 cases), and the Capital District (350 cases).
These states represent 34.3 percent of total weekly cases.

The Ministry of Health said in the 24th Epidemiological Bulletin that
they have been developing, since March 2010, the 2010 Bicentennial
Plan for Control of Vectors to reduce cases of dengue, malaria, and
Chagas disease.

Officials said that, so far, 379 318 houses have been fumigated. On
the other hand, 531 172 mosquito breeding sites have been destroyed,
and 1 727 126 people have been protected.

[Byline: Giuliana Chiappe]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A map showing the states in Venezuela can be accessed at
. A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Venezuela can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[6] Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Date: Fri 2 Jul 2010
Source: Terra [in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY, edited]

The Secretariat of Health of Mato Grosso reported on Thursday [1 Jul
2010] that 39 552 dengue cases were recorded in the state since 1 Jan
of this year [2010]. Of this total, 821 are serious cases. According
to the bulletin, 42 deaths from the disease were confirmed, and 13
are under investigation. During the same period last year [2009],
there were 33 042 [dengue] cases.

The capital, Cuiaba, has the greatest number of registered cases,
with 4239, 102 of them serious. As a result of the disease, 4 people
died, and another 6 deaths are under investigation. The 2nd city with
the most cases is Varzea Grande, with 1487 registered [cases] and 4 deaths.

The virus [that causes] the disease is transmitted by the _Aedes
aegypti_ mosquito. After transmission, a person passes through an
incubation period of 4-10 days, after which symptoms appear.

The Secretariat issued an alert for [implementation of] measures to
avoid the proliferation of the mosquito: maintain water tanks, casks
and barrels or other recipients that store water totally covered and
clean inside; remove everything that can prevent water from running
through the gutters and not let the rain water accumulate on the
concrete slab, fill the little plates under potted plants with sand
to the edge; do not save objects that can hold water such as pots,
empty cans and bottles, and keep garbage cans tightly closed.

Communicated by:

[A map of Brazil showing the location of Mato Grosso state can be
accessed at . A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[7] Philippines (Metro Manila)
Date: Sun 11 Jul 2010
Source: Mb.com.ph [summ. Mod.TY, edited]

Quezon City health authorities Sunday [11 Jul 2010] moved to check
the spread of dengue and prevent the disease from becoming an
epidemic. Mayor Herbert Bautista, in his directive, ordered the city
health chief to account for all the dengue cases in the city, which
presently has reached an alert level status, saying it was necessary
to determine if the ailment had infected local residents, since there
were reports of discrepancies in the addresses of the supposed
victims. "We need to accurately account for the number of dengue
cases in the city," Bautista said. Bautista cited the need to
undertake appropriate health measures to avert the possible outbreak,
as the disease usually spreads and peaks during the rainy months of
July and August every year.

From 1 Jan-26 Jun [2010], the epidemiology and surveillance unit of
the city's health department reported about 575 dengue cases. While
the cases may be highest among the cities and municipalities in Metro
Manila, the city health department maintains that the dengue cases in
the city this year [2010] are 7 percent lower compared to those
recorded during the same period last year [2009]. The statement was
attested to by the latest report submitted by the Department of
Health, National Capital Region (DoH-NCR), which noted the absence of
clustering of dengue cases in Quezon City, with the only report of
clustering registered in Navotas and Marikina.

Rep. Jorge "Bolet" Banal of the city's 3rd district said that
maintaining a clean environment and surroundings is still the best
remedy to prevent the spread of communicable diseases like dengue. He
reminded the public that DoH and the city health department have
continuously handed out tips to prevent any outbreak, reiterating
that tires, vases, tin cans, and other containers that collect water
and have become breeding grounds of insects should either be cleaned
regularly or discarded outright. "I am pleading to the public to
follow the health tips of government authorities to spare them the
inconvenience of being afflicted with dengue or any other diseases.
By doing so, you will be also helping the government lessen its
burden," Banal added.

At the same time, Antonietta Inumerable, city health officer, called
on the city residents to take advantage of the fast lane services
offered by the different health centers for high-fever cases, saying
that 60 health centers are all equipped with facilities and medicines
to respond to their medical needs. The city health department has
been continuously conducting a massive information dissemination
campaign in an effort to raise the level of awareness of city
residents in curbing the spread of the deadly disease [causing
virus], which is transmitted by the daytime-biting _Aedes aegypti_ mosquitoes.

The city health department has mobilized the community and the
barangays [neighborhoods] to launch weekly cleanup drives to get rid
of possible breeding sites for the dengue-carrying mosquitoes, with
the brigades already formed in schools and the barangays
[community-level organizations].

[Byline: Chito A Chavez]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[An interactive map showing the location of Quezon City in Metro
Manila can be accessed at
. A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the Philippines can be
accessed at . - Mod.TY]

[8] Philippines (Southern Mindanao)
Date: Wed 7 Jul 2010
Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer [edited]

With nearly 3 dozen deaths since January [2010] in at least 2 areas
in Southern Mindanao alone, including this [Davao] city, officials
have rallied residents anew to seriously help in combating dengue. In
this city alone, 20 persons, mostly children, have died of dengue
fever since January [2010], the Department of Health in Southern
Mindanao had said. Salvador Estrera, DOH assistant regional director,
said more than half of the 2100 dengue cases recorded region-wide
since the start of the year [2010] came from this city. "We are now
considering [this] an outbreak," Estrera told the Philippine Daily
Inquirer by phone on Wednesday [7 Jul 2010].

He expressed alarm over the fact that the number of cases has been
climbing. "It's increasing. There is an increase of between 15-19
percent compared to the same period last year [2009]," Estrera said.
He said the DOH was puzzled at the sharp increase in the number of
dengue cases this year [2010], although officials earlier expected
that dengue fever would strike with the start of the rainy season.
"We still don't know what caused the increase of cases. There are
many factors to consider, and climate change can be among them," Estrera said.

In Digos City, the high number of deaths since January [2010] had
prompted the city disaster coordinating council (CDCC) to urge Mayor
Joseph Penas to issue an executive order declaring a state of calamity.

Milagros Sunga, city health officer, said since January to early July
[2010], at least 13 dengue patients had already died, while more than
600 others had been diagnosed with the disease. Sunga said based on
their assessment, dengue was most prevalent in the villages of Tres
de Mayo, Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone 3, and Aplaya. "Out of the city's 22
villages, only 4 barangays remained dengue-free," she said.

Reached by the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Penas said he already
ordered the city legal officer to draft the executive order for the
declaration of state of calamity. "We have to act now, otherwise it
will become more severe and tough to address if we do not do
anything," he said.

Penas also pledged that the city government would help the Philippine
National Red Cross blood bank in Digos City to acquire the machines
needed to extract plasma and platelets from donated fresh blood.
Relatives of dengue fever patients have to go to Davao City to avail
themselves of the blood components that could help save their family
members. "We really don't have this machine, which is a very vital
instrument in dealing with dengue fever patients," Helen Caberto,
administrator of the PNRC Davao del Sur chapter, said. "Perhaps other
local government units, the 2 congressional districts, and the office
of the governor can also give their share to purchase this machine so
that the lives of our people will not be endangered due to the advent
of dengue fever, which is now affecting our communities," Penas said.

Dr Azucena Dayanghirang, Davao del Sur health chief, said a dengue
epidemic has already been declared all over the province. Davao del
Sur Gov. Douglas Cagas declared the entire province under a state of
calamity, she said. Cagas, in a separate interview, said the
declaration would enable the provincial government to use its
calamity fund in combating the disease.

In Tagum City, one patient died of dengue fever since the start of
the year [2010], and 24 others had been hospitalized, said Dr Arnel
Florendo of the city health office.

Estrera said the DOH has been intensifying its campaign against
dengue fever by urging residents to clean their surroundings. He said
the battle against the disease could be won only by eradicating the
breeding places of mosquitoes.

[Byline: Dennis Santos, Eldie Aguirre, Orlando Dinoy, Frinston Lim]

Communicated by:

[An interactive map showing the location of Davao City, one of the
Philippines largest, on the island of Mindanao can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[9] Philippines (Northern Mindanao)
Date: Sun 4 Jul 2010
Source: Mb.com.ph [summ. Mod.TY, edited]

The Department of Health (DoH) sounded an alarm over the significant
rise in cases of dengue fever in Northern and Northeastern Mindanao,
citing 10 deaths out of the 1406 persons reportedly downed by the
mosquito-borne disease. The DoH offices in Caraga region and Region
10 were already mobilized to help community health officers stop the
spread of the dreaded disease, which has taken its toll mostly on children.

The patients are currently admitted at various hospitals in the
cities of Butuan, Bislig, Surigao, and Cagayan de Oro. Health
authorities believed that this sudden increase of dengue cases is due
to the onset of the rainy season.

New Health Secretary Dr Enrique T Ona said last Friday [2 Jul 2010]
that he would pay more attention to local infectious diseases, dengue
in particular, after cases of this mosquito-borne disease reflected a
45.3 percent increase this year [2010] as compared with the same
period last year [2009].

Between 1 Jan-5 Jun this year [2010], dengue cases have climbed to 20
161 nationwide. Ona cited figures from the National Epidemiology
Center (NEC) showing that the death toll from dengue was at least
135. Cagayan de Oro City owned up to at least 5 of these deaths in
the city due to the disease from January-June this year [2010]. This
record does not even include those from the provinces of Misamis
Oriental, Bukidnon, and Camiguin. Health officials in Caraga and
Region 10 asked the local government units (LGUs) to mobilize their
respective community leaders in the massive information campaign
against dengue.

In Northern Mindanao, health officials said they had reason to
believe there would be more dengue cases than last month [June 2010].
Cagayan de Oro City Health Officer-Designate Dr. Jerry Calingasan
encouraged local communities to use their "mosquito dwellings [?]"
and "practice cleaning their surroundings."

To date, at least 5 people, mostly children, died due to dengue in
hospitals in the cities of Butuan, Surigao and Bislig and provincial
and community hospitals in the 4 provinces and 3 other component
cities in the region. The fatalities included 2 from Surigao City and
one each from Cabadbaran City, Magallanes, Agusan del Norte, and San
Francisco, Surigao del Norte.

Based on the DoH-Caraga disease surveillance report, Butuan had the
highest number of dengue cases with 432, followed by Agusan del Sur
with 202 and Surigao del Norte with 126. Surigao City had 94 cases,
Agusan del Norte had 80, Surigao del Sur, 72, Bayugan City, 39,
Cabadbaran City, 23, Dinagat Islands, 14, Bislig City, 13, and Tandag City, 6.

They (health authorities) said the majority, or 53 percent, of those
afflicted with the mosquito-borne disease [virus] were male, and 39
percent of the cases belonged to the age group 10 and younger.

"Fighting the spread of dengue does not only belong to the DoH and
health workers but is everybody's concern, especially each family
member," said DoH Region 13 Director Leonita P Gorgolon. Some of the
prevention tips are that homes, schools and government and private
offices should be kept free of mosquitoes by keeping water containers
closed and their breeding places clean.

[Byline: Mike U Crismundo]

Communicated by:

[A map showing the provinces on Mindanao Island can be accessed at
The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the Philippines is
available at - Mod.TY]

[10] Viet Nam
Date: Thu 8 Jul 2010
Source: Radio The Voice of Viet Nam (VOV) News [edited]

The recent outbreaks of dengue fever have made thousands of people in
the Central and Central Highland regions ill.

In Binh Dinh province, 676 people have been diagnosed as having
dengue fever, double last year's [2009] figure, and 2 children have died.

In nearby Phu Yen, 930 cases of dengue fever have been recorded, and
one death was confirmed in Tuy Hoa City. The virus has also spread to
Pleiku city and some districts in Gia Lai province.

Communicated by:

[The newswire above reports a sharp increase of DF/DHF cases in the
Central and Central Highland regions in Viet Nam.

In its report of 20 Jun 2010 (available in Vietnamese at
(), the Viet Nam Ministry of Health
reported 4143 DF/DHF cases from 47 provinces and cities; among those,
5 died in June 2010. The accumulated number of DF/DHF in Viet Nam in
2010 is 17 011 cases, of which 17 died. Compared with the same period
in 2009 (22 940 cases and 22 deaths), the number of DF/DHF cases has
decreased by 25.8 percent and the number of deaths due to DF/DHF
decreased by 5 cases.

According to the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific
(WHO/WPRO) report available at
, there was a total
of 105 370 cases and 87 deaths of DF/DHF reported in Viet Nam during 2009.

For a map of Viet Nam with provinces, see
The interactive HealthMap/ProMED-mail map with direct links to other
outbreaks in Viet Nam and surrounding countries reported on
ProMED-mail and PRO/MBDS can be accessed at
. - Mod.QCN]

[In the 10 Jul 2010 edition of Saigon Giai Phong (SGGP) Daily
(), on 9 Jul
2010, Le Bich Lien, deputy director of Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC)
Children's Hospital No. 2, said that in the past week, the hospital
has hospitalized 70-80 children each day with dengue fever, with 60
percent of the cases coming from HCMC. Since the beginning of the
year [2010], HCMC has recorded 2000 cases of persons infected with
dengue fever, with one patient dying from the disease. - Mod.TY]

[11] Singapore
Date: Wed 7 Jul 2010
Source: Channelnewsasia.com [edited]

In Singapore, 69 cases of dengue have been reported in the Cairnhill
area. Of these, 42 cases involve construction workers in the area.
They work at the Hilltops condominium construction site under Tiong
Seng Contractors.

The National Environment Agency (NEA) said there are currently 3
clusters: Cairnhill Rise and Cairnhill Circle; Cairnhill Road; and
Anthony Road and Monk's Hill Road clusters. There are 54 cases at
Cairnhill Rise/Circle, 12 cases at Cairnhill Road, and 3 cases at
Anthony Road/Monk's Hill Road.

NEA said 68 breeding habitats have been detected, with 13 at
construction sites. The rest are areas inside and outside homes. The
agency has issued fines to the offending parties. It has also
deployed officers to patrol the area daily.

[Byline: Ng Lian Cheong]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Singapore can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[see also:
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (32) 20100705.2240
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (31) 20100701.2196
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (30) 20100627.2152
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (29) 20100622.2085
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (28) 20100618.2043
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (27) 20100616.2009
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (26) 20100607.1903
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (25) 20100601.1821
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (24) 20100524.1722
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (22) 20100510.1528
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (21) 20100503.1439
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (20) 20100426.1347
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (19) 20100420.1279
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (18) 20100412.1190
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (17) 20100405.1094
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (16) 20100329.0982
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (15) 20100323.0922
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (14) 20100322.0910
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (13) 20100316.0840
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (12) 20100315.0835
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (11) 20100308.0753
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (10) 20100304.0707
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (09) 20100302.0685
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (08) 20100222.0597
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (07) 20100216.0537
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (06) 20100208.0426
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (05) 20100201.0346
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (04) 20100125.0277
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (03) 20100119.0211
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (02) 20100111.0131
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (01) 20100104.0038]

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