Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Sunday, August 8, 2010


A ProMED-mail post

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International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Sun 8 Aug 2010
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2010; 23(32) [edited]

Foot-and-mouth disease, Botswana
Information received on (and dated) 06 Aug 2010 from Dr Kgoseitsile
Phillemon-Motsu, Director, Department of Veterinary Services,
Ministry of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana

Report type: immediate notification
Start date: 26 Jul 2010
Date of 1st confirmation of the event: 3 Aug 2010
Report date: 6 Aug 2010
Date submitted to OIE: 6 Aug 2010
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 2008
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Serotype: pending
Nature of diagnosis: suspicion, clinical
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country

New outbreaks
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Lesoma, Chobe, Kasane [North-West district]
Date of start of the outbreak: 26 Jul 2010
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: village
Species: cattle
Susceptible: 346
Cases: 34
Deaths: 0
Destroyed: 0
Slaughtered: 0

Species: goats
Susceptible: 99
Cases: 0
Deaths 0
Destroyed: 0
Slaughtered: 0

Species: swine
Susceptible: 66
Cases: 0
Deaths: 0
Destroyed: 0
Slaughtered: 0
Affected population: the pigs and goats showed no suspect signs of FMD.

Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: contact with wild species.
Epidemiological comments: the suspected outbreak is outside the "FMD
free zone where vaccination is not practiced" recognized by the OIE;
hence it will not affect the disease status of FMD free zones within
the country. The village in which the suspected outbreak occurred is
along the international border between Botswana and Zimbabwe
sandwiched between 2 national parks (Hwange in Zimbabwe and Chobe in
Botswana). Cattle in this village are communally reared and watered
from a natural spring in the outskirts of the village and the spring
is frequented by wild animals from both parks. Historically, FMD
susceptible animals and their products are not allowed to leave this
zone. The disease is controlled through routine scheduled
vaccinations, which are undertaken 3 times a year using a 3PD50
trivalent vaccine. Because the animals are herded and kraaled at
night throughout the year to guard against predators, coverage during
vaccinations is almost 100 percent. The experienced proportion of
vaccinated cases was below the expected.

Control measures
Measures applied: quarantine; movement control inside the country;
screening; zoning; disinfection of infected
premises/establishment(s); dipping/spraying; no vaccination; no
treatment of affected animals.
Measures to be applied: vaccination in response to the outbreak(s).

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: Botswana Vaccine Institute (OIE's reference
Species: cattle
Test: virus isolation
Test date: --
Result: pending

Species: cattle
Test: virus sequencing
Test date: --
Result: pending

Future reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

Communicated by:

[Botswana's beef industry is export oriented, with South Africa being
it's largest target market and Europe also playing a major role.
Since this outbreak is not inside the FMD export zone, there should
be no impact on exports at all. This is important because beef plays
an important role in Botswana's economy.

The report is forwarded based on clinical disease with laboratory
results pending. Given the frequency and importance of this disease
and the distinct clinical syndrome where obviously painful, visible
lesions are present, it is not surprising and very helpful to have
such rapid reporting through official channels. Lesions in cattle
commonly include vesicles in the mouth, tongue, palate, teats, and
feet. Remedial vaccine coverage will hopefully prevent spread.

This outbreak occurs in the Northeast of the country very close the
border with Zimbabwe and near the Zambian border as well. The far
western sliver type extension of Namibia is also not far away from
outbreak location, so the outbreak is situated at the confluence of
the 4 countries. The location of the outbreak can be seen appended to
the OIE WAHID reference cited above or on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail
interactive map at . Mod.PC]

[see also:
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Botswana (05): (GH), RFI 20081121.3683
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Botswana (04): (GH), OIE 20081103.3453
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Botswana (03): (Ghanzi) 20081102.3444
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Botswana: (Kasane), OIE 20080807.2432]
Foot & mouth disease - Mozambique ex Zimbabwe: RFI 20080427.1457
Foot & mouth disease, cattle - Botswana: (Ngamiland) 20080116.0195
Foot & mouth disease, bovine - Namibia (Caprivi), susp., RFI 20071207.3953
Foot and mouth disease, cattle - Botswana (Ngamiland): OIE 20071021.3436
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (Ngamiland): susp., RFI 20071016.3384
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (05): OIE 20060625.1765
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (04): OIE 20060610.1622
Foot & mouth disease, Botswana (03): OIE 20060517.1384
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (02): conf. 20060504.1283
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana: susp. 20060430.1250
Foot and mouth disease - Botswana: susp., OIE 20050817.2411
Foot & mouth disease, cattle - Zambia (02) 20050524.1427
Foot & mouth disease, cattle - Zambia: restrictions lifted 20050322.0821
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana: preventive measures 20050304.0665
Foot & mouth disease, cattle - Zambia (08) 20041223.3393
Foot & mouth disease, cattle - Zambia: OIE 20040303.0640
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe (13) 20031102.2722
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe (11): vaccination 20030807.1945
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (06): OIE 20030211.0364
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (05): OIE 20030204.0303
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (04) 20030131.0268
Foot & mouth disease - Zimbabwe: vaccination 20030125.0228
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (03): OIE 20030121.0187
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana (02) 20030118.0155
Foot & mouth disease - Botswana 20030111.0088]

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