Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010


Cholera as a WMD; http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/bio_cholera.htm


A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:


[1] Cholera - Pakistan (Baluchistan)

[2] Cholera, diarrhea - India (Kashmir)

[3] Cholera - China (Hong Kong) ex Indonesia


[4] Cholera - Uganda (Butaleja)

[5] Cholera - Nigeria (northern states)

[6] Cholera - Nigeria (Adamawa)

[7] Cholera - Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger

[8] Cholera - Kenya (Nyanza)


[1] Cholera - Pakistan (Baluchistan)

Date: Tue 24 Aug 2010

Source: GEO TV [edited]

At least 8 people including 2 children died during a breakout of

cholera and diarrhea after deadly floods multiplied sufferings of

already ravaged people in Jaffarabad District in Baluchistan, Geo

News reported.

The district has been disconnected from other parts of country for

the last 11 days, while abject scarcity of drinking water and

shortages of food and medicines have let situation go from bad to worse.


Communicated by:


[Baluchistan is in southwestern Pakistan. Exactly how many

cases/deaths of diarrhea are due to cholera is not clear but

significant diarrheal illnesses almost always occur in the wake of

such catastrophes. - Mod.LL]

[The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Pakistan is available

at . - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]


[2] Cholera, diarrhea - India (Jammu and Kashmir)

Date: Mon 23 Aug 2010

Source: Greater Kashmir [edited]

The diarrhea, which claimed 2 lives and left over 700 ill in central

Kashmir's Budgam district, could be cholera as the patients have the

same symptoms and the authorities have started treatment on those lines.

Sources told Greater Kashmir that the preliminary investigations

suggested that the disease was cholera and the health department was

trying to hush up the issue to avoid international concern.

In the past few days, over 700 people in Budgam villages including

Reyar, Waterhaal, Kralnar, Harpanzu, and Shoolipora were hit by the

disease while over 150 people are still undergoing treatment at

health care centers.

[Byline: M Hyderi]


Communicated by:


[Jammu and Kashmir state can be located on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail

interactive map of India at . - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]


[3] Cholera - China (Hong Kong) ex Indonesia

Date: Sat 21 Aug 2010

Source: 7th Space, Government of Hong Kong SAR report [edited]

The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health

today (21 Aug 2010) investigated an imported case of cholera and

reminds people to observe good personal, food, and environmental

hygiene, whether in Hong Kong or traveling abroad. The case involved

a 30-year-old woman who came to Hong Kong from Indonesia on 17 Aug

2010. The woman developed watery diarrhea and vomiting the following day.

She attended Kwong Wah Hospital on 19 Aug 2010 and was admitted for

further management. She is now in stable condition. Laboratory tests

today showed that her stool specimen yielded positive result for

_Vibrio cholerae_ O1 Ogawa.

Her close contacts have no symptoms of cholera.


Communicated by:


[As a short review, the flagellar (H) antigens of _V. cholerae_ are

shared with many water vibrios and, therefore, are of no use in

distinguishing strains causing epidemic cholera. The O (somatic)

antigens, however, do distinguish strains of _V. cholerae_ into 139

known serotypes. Almost all of these strains of _V. cholerae_ are

nonvirulent. Until the emergence of the Bengal (O139) strain (which

is "non-O1"), a single serotype, designated O1, has been responsible

for epidemic cholera.

There are 3 distinct O1 biotypes, named Ogawa, Inaba, and Hikojima,

each of which may display the "classical" or El Tor phenotype. The

biotypes are distinguished by their expression of surface antigens A,

B, and C. Ogawa contains antigens A and B; Inaba antigens A and C;

and Hikojima antigens A, B, and C. The latter serotype is relatively

rare. - Mod.LL]

[Hong Kong can be seen on the HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map

at . - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]


[4] Cholera - Uganda (Butaleja)

Date: Mon 23 Aug 2010

Source: The New Vision (Uganda) [edited]

A total of 3 people have died following a cholera outbreak in

Butaleja district. The district health officer, Dr Kenneth Mweru,

said 20 people were admitted at Nabiganda Cholera Treatment Centre in

critical condition. He noted that health authorities were monitoring

and sensitising the public on ways of preventing the disease.

Mweru said 6 of the 1st victims of cholera could have contracted the

disease from the funeral of one of the people who had died of the

disease in Busolwe town council.

[Byline: Moses Bikala]


Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Uganda is available at

. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]


[5] Cholera - Nigeria (northern states)

Date: Tue 24 Aug 2010

Source: Agence France-Presse (AFP) [edited]

The death toll from cholera in northern Nigeria has risen to 283 from

231 within a week, according to various official figures.

The figure of those infected by cholera in the past 2 weeks has also

risen above 5000 from the earlier 4600 figure announced last week

[week of 16 Aug 2010], according to officials.

The latest outbreak was recorded in northeastern Yobe State where 42

people died in the past week from a disease health officials said was

a form of gastro-enteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea,

which are also cholera symptoms.

"We have recorded an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Yobe State in the

last week which has killed 42 people and infected 443 others," Isa

Adamu, an official of the WHO in the state, said. "The disease has to

do with watery stool and vomiting which physically looks like

cholera, but we do not have the reagents in Yobe State for laboratory

analysis to confirm if it is cholera."

Cholera has also killed at least 4 people in a village in Kaduna

State in the past week as a result of contamination of open wells,

state health commissioner Charity Shekari told AFP.

In neighboring Katsina State, the disease killed 6 people and

infected 50 others in the last week, according to Bishir Babba, a

local official.

Last Thursday, 19 Aug 2010, health minister Onyebuchi Chukwu said 231

people had died of cholera while 4600 others were infected in some

states, particularly in the north with Borno, Bauchi, and Adamawa

being worst hit.


Communicated by:



[6] Cholera - Nigeria (Adamawa)

Date: Sun 22 Aug 2010

Source: The Sun News [edited]

The epidemic of the water-borne disease, cholera, continues to ravage

parts of northern Nigeria as no fewer than 20 persons, particularly

women and children, have been reported dead in Adamawa State in a

fresh outbreak. 168 persons have also been reported hospitalized in

various parts of the state. In the Southern parts, in Ganye II, of

Ganye Local Government Area, 10 persons, including an 85-year-old

woman, died of the disease at the weekend [21-22 Aug 2010], according

to the principal medical officer of Ganye General Hospital, Dr Daniel Tizhe.

Dr Tizhe told our correspondent that the outbreak of the disease was

reported to the hospital on 1 Aug 2010 and had treated 69 victims

while 10 of them died before they got to the hospital from the village.

The Director of Primary Healthcare in Ganye council, Alhaji Yakubu

Madi Nekenjumi, said he suspected the disease must have been spread

by residents from neighboring Cameroon Republic, which he said

claimed many lives in that country. In Madagali Local Government in

the northern part of the state, 10 persons out of 129 patients

hospitalized have died. The victims are from Sukur, Palan, Duhu, and

Gulak villages.

[Byline: David Molomo]


Communicated by:


[The states mentioned in the 2 reports above can be seen on the map

at .

The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Nigeria is available at

. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]


[7] Cholera - Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger

Date: Mon 23 Aug 2010

Source: United Nations News Centre [edited]

An outbreak of cholera in the 3 neighboring West African countries of

Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger has infected nearly 4000 people and

killed more than 260 others since May [2010], the United Nations

health agency reported today [23 Aug 2010], blaming the epidemic on

poor hygiene and inadequate access to clean water.

Northern Cameroon, where more than 2800 cases -- including more than

200 deaths -- have been reported, is the worst affected area in the

Lake Chad Basin, according to the UN World Health Organization (WHO).

In Nigeria, some 830 cases and 30 deaths have been reported, while

240 cases and 16 deaths have occurred in Niger.

"We know that cholera is [a] food-borne disease. Food that has been

in contact with contaminated water is, of course, at high risk of

transmitting cholera to people," said Claire-Lise Chaignat, WHO's

cholera coordinator. "Good food hygiene is actually very important

for preventing the disease from spreading," she told UN Radio.

Ms. Chaignat said WHO and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) were

working together to combat the cholera epidemic, providing those

affected with oral rehydration salts to prevent deaths related to

diarrhoea, distributing chlorine for water treatment and carrying out

health education campaigns.


Communicated by:



[8] Cholera - Kenya (Nyanza)

Date: Fri 20 Aug 2010

Source: Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC), Kenya News Agency (KNA)

report [edited]

To date 5 people have died in Kuria West District in what doctors

suspect to be a cholera outbreak in the area. 3 of the victims died

in hospitals while the 2 others succumbed to acute diarrhea and

vomiting in Masaba and Mabera divisions.

At least 18 other people are admitted to various hospitals in Kuria

West and Migori Districts with similar symptoms and are still

receiving treatment.

Kuria DC James Mugwe said the medical workers had taken samples from

the patients to Kisumu for tests to ascertain the outbreak of the disease.

It is suspected that the outbreak occurred following an acute water

shortage that has hit Kehancha and Isebania border towns for the past

2 weeks, forcing the residents to use contaminated water from the

polluted Ragana river.


Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Kenya is available at

. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[see also:

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (17) 20100820.2907

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (16) 20100817.2851

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (15): Pakistan 20100814.2807

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (14): Asia 20100809.2717

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (13): Africa 20100807.2695

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (12): West Asia RFI 20100727.2521

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (11): Asia 20100706.2251

Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery update 2010 (10): Africa 20100525.1737

Cholera, diarrhea and dysentery update 2010 (09): Americas 20100524.1727

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (08): Asia 20100524.1723

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (07): Asia, Americas 20100324.0936

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (06): Africa 20100319.0881

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (05): Asia, Africa 20100219.0573

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (04): Africa 20100216.0550

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (03): Asia, Oceania 20100212.0499

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (02): Africa 20100208.0428

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2010 (01): Europe, Asia 20100205.0387



Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2009 (30) 20091125.4044

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2009 (01) 20090102.0015



Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2008 (57) 20081231.4125

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2008 (01) 20080104.0047



Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2007 (67) 20071231.4200

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2007 (01) 20070105.0047



Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2006 (52) 20061229.3646

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update 2006 (01) 20060106.0040]




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