Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

DENGUE/DHF UPDATE 2010 (39) India, Elsewhere

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:
[1] India (Delhi)
[2] Philippines (national)
[3] Philippines (Negros Occidental)
[4] Philippines (Davao Sur)
[5] Philippines (Aklan)
[6] Malaysia
[7] Dominican Republic
[8] Martinique
[9] Brazil (national)
[10] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)
[11] Brazil (Alagoas)

[1] India (Delhi)
Date: Wed 28 Jul 2010
Source: The Times of India [edited]

An alert has been sounded in the city to control
the spread of dengue. With the Commonwealth Games
round the corner and the fear of a dengue
epidemic looming large, the Municipal Corporation
of Delhi (MCD) has said it will further intensify
the spray of chemical larvicides. The civic body
started a special training programme for doctors
on Tuesday [27 Jul 2010] to strengthen case
management and curb fatalities due to the viral
infection. Meanwhile, 3 new cases of dengue were
reported in the city on Tuesday [27 Jul 2010]
taking the total count this season to 31.

"To strengthen the case management of different
forms of dengue, dengue fever, DHF and dengue
shock syndrome and to follow standardized
protocol, we are training physicians and
paediatricians. We plan to involve Delhi Medical
Association in this program so that private
practitioners are also involved," said municipal
health officer Dr N K Yadav. He said that
excessive administration of fluids and blood has been observed in some cases.

"Administration of blood and platelets is not
required in all cases. But doctors tend to do so
and it leads to unnecessary panic at times,"
Yadav said. A meeting of the medical
superintendents and nodal officers of all 33
sentinel surveillance hospitals in Delhi will be
held on Thursday [29 Jul 2010] to deliberate further on the issue, he added.

Dr Bir Singh, head of the community medicine
department at All India Institute of Medical
Sciences (AIIMS), said that if in July-end 3-4
dengue cases are reported daily the situation
should not be seen as alarming. "The number of
cases reported to date is not epidemiologically
significant. However, this year the potency
[virulence?] of the dengue virus is expected to
be higher and extensive surveillance as well as
anti-larval spray is needed. We cannot depend on
the civic agencies alone to check mosquito
breeding. Public participation is more
important," said Singh. He said that people who
have contracted the disease before should take
extra precaution because they may get hit by a
more severe strain of dengue, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[There is reason to be concerned about an
increasing number of cases. The 3 Aug 2010
edition of Big News Network.com
reported that with 4 new dengue cases, the total
in Delhi has now reached 61 with one death in
2010. In the 4 Aug 2010 edition of the India
News post
N.K. Yadav, chief medical officer of Municipal
Corporation of Delhi, reported Tuesday (3 Aug
2010) 7 fresh confirmed cases of dengue, taking
the number of people affected by the
mosquito-borne virus disease to 68 this year (2010).

A HealthMap/ProMED mail interactive map of India
can be accessed at - Mod.TY]

[2] Philippines (national)
Date: Sun 25 Jul 2010
Source: Inquirer.net [edited]

At least 23 people, most of them children, have
died of dengue fever in Cagayan Valley, Zamboanga
City and Bicol region since January this year
[2010], reports from the Department of Health
showed. Health officials in Zamboanga City said
the situation has become a cause for alarm.
Rodelin Agbulos, Zamboanga health officer, said
at least 1052 others had fallen ill due to the
mosquito-borne disease [virus] since the start of
the year. "It has reached the alert level in
Western Mindanao. The number of deaths is higher
compared to 2008, during which we declared a
dengue outbreak with 8 deaths," Agbulos said. In
Cagayan Valley, DOH officials have asked
residents in the region to be vigilant to protect
their families from mosquito-borne diseases
[pathogens], especially dengue, this rainy season.

DOH personnel have been sent to various parts of
the region to conduct information campaign to
prevent dengue fever as the agency reported 6
dengue deaths and 336 cases from January to June
this year [2010], said Floro Orata, regional DOH
information officer. He said dengue fever-related
deaths were reported in Lasam, Santa Ana and
Claveria towns in Cagayan and in Ilagan in
Isabela, Diadi in Nueva Vizcaya and Maddela in
Quirino. He said the number of cases this year
was lower than the January to June period last
year [2009], which recorded 442 cases and 5 deaths.

Agbulos said that in Zamboanga City, dengue cases
were prevalent in the villages of Santa Maria,
Tumaga, San Roque, Tetuan, Baliwasan, San Jose
Gusu, Guiwan, Upper Calarian, Campo Islam and Putik.

In Albay, health authorities have expressed alarm
over the recorded 364 dengue cases in the
province from January to June this year [2010],
more than 10 times the 35 cases posted during the
same period last year [2009]. Dr. Luis Mendoza,
Albay provincial health officer, however,
reported only one casualty for this year.

"In 2009, there were 4 casualties due to dengue,"
Mendoza said. He said that of the 364 cases, 168
were reported in Legazpi City, while Daraga had
97 and Tabaco, 44. Albay health officials say
water shortage compels households to store water,
leading to water-borne risks. Based on the team's
investigation, common breeding sites of
mosquitoes were old pump boats, bamboo posts, old
motorcycle tires, shells and vegetation growth,
the provincial health office (PHO) report said.

Negros Occidental health officials have started a
clean up drive in the wake of an almost 300
percent rise in dengue cases in the province. A
PHO report showed 1098 dengue cases in Negros
Occidental from 1 Jan to 10 Jul 2010, with 6
dengue deaths reported in Himamaylan City, Bago City, Murcia and Sipalay City.

Community-based groups and residents were asked
to remove or clean up all possible breeding
places of the _Aedes aegypti_, the day-breeding
mosquito that causes dengue fever [transmits
dengue viruses], to avert a further spread of the dreaded disease.

In Capiz, the number of dengue fever cases has
reached 1006 with 8 deaths, said Eyr Altavas,
officer in charge of the Capiz Epidemiological
Surveillance and Response Unit (CESRU) of the
Capiz Integrated Provincial Health Office.
Altavas said Roxas City had the most number of
dengue fever cases with 292 afflicted persons and
3 deaths. For June [2010] alone, the city has
recorded 96 dengue fever cases with 2 deaths. The
other areas with dengue fever cases included the
towns of Pontevedra and Dao, each with 82 cases,
Dumalag, Pilar, President Roxas, Cuartero, Panay,
Maayon, Mambusao, Panitan, Jamindan, Sigma, Dumarao, Ivisan, Tapaz, and Sapian.

Health Assistant Secretary Maria Bernardita
Flores said people should make sure their
surroundings are clean and that breeding areas of
mosquitoes—stagnant water in flower vases,
uncovered barrels, buckets and discarded tires,
wet shower floors, toilet tanks—should be
removed. Orata said people may wear long-sleeved
clothes and pants when outdoors, use insect
repellent and mosquito nets to avoid getting insect bites.

[Byline: Villamor Visaya Jr., Inquirer Northern
Luzon; Julie Alipala, Inquirer Mindanao; Rey M.
Nasol, Inquirer Southern Luzon; Carla P. Gomez
and Felipe Celino, Inquirer Visayas]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[The 28 Jul 2010 edition of the Inquirer
reported that the Philippines National
Epidemiology Center reported 29 393 dengue cases
and 228 deaths in the country from 1 Jan - 10 Jul
2010. Health officials said the number of dengue
cases could reach 70 000 cases in 2010.

A map showing the provinces in the Philippines can be accessed at

A HealthMap/ProMED mail interactive map of the Philippines can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[3] Philippines (Negros Occidental)
Date: Mon 26 Jul 2010
Source: Malaya [edited]

The provincial health office of Negros Occidental
said dengue cases from January through July this
year [2010] have jumped by 182 percent from last
year's figures [2009] in the province. The PHO
said that while the number of fatalities from
dengue dropped from 9 last year to 6 this year,
the number of cases from January to 10 Jul this
year [2010] reached 1098 compared to only 389
during the same period in 2009. Of the 6
dengue-related deaths, 3 were recorded in
Himamaylan City, and one each in Sipalay and Bago
cities, and in Murcia. The city of Silay posted
the most number of dengue cases with 124.

Provincial health officer Ernell Tumimbang said a
team from PHO has been deployed to areas where
dengue cases are rising and deaths have been
reported. He said they are initiating a massive
clean-up drive to remove the breeding grounds of
dengue [virus]-carrying mosquitoes.

In Quezon City, the city health office is
checking and evaluating the readiness and
expertise of hospitals to respond to emergencies,
such as dengue cases, to prevent unnecessary
deaths through negligence. The QC health
department said some families of dengue victims
had in the past blamed hospitals for the death of
their relatives, claiming that the doctors failed
to detect dengue in the early stages and merely
prescribed paracetamol without conducting laboratory tests on the patients.

[Byline: Gilbert Bayoran with Angela Lopez de Leon]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[The 29 Jul 2010 edition of the Inquirer.net
reported that the death toll had risen to 10 so
far this year [2010]. A task force was activated
on Wednesday (28 Jul 2010) after the Provincial
Health Office reported an increase of 193 percent
in the incidence of dengue: 1302 cases from 1
Jan-27 Jul 2010 compared to 444 cases in the same
period last year (2009). The PHO is also calling
for the implementation of the 4S drive -- search
and destroy mosquito breeding places, safe
protection measures, seek early consultation and
treatment, and say no to indiscriminate fogging. - Mod.TY]

[4] Philippines (Davao Sur)
Date: Tue 27 Jul 2010
Source: Inquirer.net [edited]

The Davao del Sur provincial health office has
mobilized its teams to stop the further spread of
dengue fever in the province after recording
nearly 700 cases from January - July this year
[2010]. Dr. Azucena Dayanghirang, provincial
health chief, said on Tuesday [27 Jul 2010] the
staggering number of victims -- with 9 deaths
from January - July in this city alone -- had
prompted them to mobilize resources to stop the
mosquito-borne [virus] disease. Dayanghirang said
nearly 700 others had fallen ill all over the
province due to the dengue virus and hospitals
have become crowded. But she said this city has
been placed under close watch because most of the
patients were traced from here.

Doctors speaking to the Philippine Daily Inquirer
said the rate at which the virus has been
spreading has baffled and alarmed them. A
pediatrician, who requested anonymity, said
former dengue-free villages in the province have
been reporting cases of the mosquito-borne
disease. "There also seems to be a new strain
spreading. It's deadlier," he said. "There is
also a suspicion that the virus is mutating into
a deadlier strain," the pediatrician added.

The Department of Health has been trying to find
out if a new strain [dengue virus serotype?] has
emerged or if the virus simply mutated,
Dayanghirang said. She said epidemiologists from
the DoH Central Office have started collecting
samples from dengue patients for testing.
Dayanghirang said the result of the tests might be known next week yet.

Meanwhile, she said that the provincial
government has been assisting dengue patients,
who could not afford hospitalization.
Dayanghirang said the assistance has been drawn
from the calamity fund, which was released after
Governor Douglas Cagas approved the declaration
of a state of calamity. But she said residents
should also think about preventing the spread of
disease. Dayanghirang said residents should deny
dengue-carrying mosquitoes the opportunity to
reproduce by emptying exposed containers of water
and cleaning their surroundings. "We have
intensified our campaign, house to house, to urge
the people to clean their backyards," she said.

Meanwhile, the City Health Office said it asked
the city government to allocate P1.8 million
[approximately USD 40 000] for the purchase of
fogging machines and fogging chemicals.

[Byline: Orlando Dinoy]

Communicated by:
Raymund John Ang

[A map showing the location of Davao del Sur
province can be accessed at
- Mod.TY]

[5] Philippines (Aklan)
Date: Thu 29 Jul 2010
Source: MB.com.ph [edited]

The Provincial Health Office (PHO) here has
reported a total of 103 dengue cases in the
province from January - June of this year [2010].
The report showed that Kalibo, the provincial
capital, has the highest number of cases at 40,
followed by the towns of Banga, which has 11, and Numancia, 10.

Provincial Health Officer Dr. Victor A.
Santamaria said such cases mostly come from
thickly-populated areas, as evidenced by the
report. The month of June had the highest number
of cases -- 31 -- during the 6-month period. Only
the towns of Buruanga, Madalag and Libacao reported 0 cases.

According to the report, 5 cases were recorded in
Altavas, 8 in Batan, one in Balete, 6 in New
Washington, 3 in Lezo, 5 in Makato, 3 in Malinao,
4 in Ibajay, 2 in Malay, 2 in Nabas, and 3 in
Tangalan. During the same period last year
[2009], a total of 43 cases were recorded in
Aklan province, with the capital, Kalibo, having the highest cases at 22.

Dr. Santamaria said dengue can affect anybody,
"whether rich or poor, young or old." However, he
said, "children are more prone to dengue due to
several factors like weak immune systems. And
dengue now affects people all year-round."

To prevent dengue, he said, people should
thoroughly clean their surroundings, making sure
that cans, coconut shells, old tires and other
garbage do not collect water where mosquitoes
could breed. People should also use mosquito nets
and have their windows screened to prevent the
insects from getting inside their houses. "Rooms
which are seldom used should be inspected often
because mosquitoes stay in undisturbed places,"
Dr. Santamaria added. Besides clear but stagnant
water in cans and tires, health workers in the
province also found out that mosquitoes likewise
breed in water collected in bamboo poles which
are used as posts of house fences. The PHO
officer advised Aklanons to cover such poles to prevent water collection.

Communicated by:
Raymund John Ang

[6] Malaysia
Date: Mon 26 Jul 2010
Source: Bernama.com [edited]

A total of 27 400 cases and 91 deaths due to
dengue have been reported between January and
yesterday [25 Jul 2010], according to Health
Minister Datuk Seri Liow Tiong Lai. He said the
death toll reported so far this year, which
involved mostly adults, was higher than the
number recorded last year [2009], which was 88.
Last week alone (18-24 Jul [2010]), 7 deaths due
to dengue were reported from 1071 cases, the
highest weekly cases recorded so far, he told
reporters after visiting the Sultan Abdul Halim
Hospital here Monday [26 Jul 2010].

He said prevention programmes and enforcement
operations, especially in 34 identified hot
spots, would be intensified as 80 percent of
premises inspected so far in the these places
were found to have _Aedes_ mosquito breeding grounds.

Selangor still has the highest number of dengue
hot spots with 17, followed by Johor (6), Kuala Lumpur (6) and Sarawak (5).

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of
Malaysia can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[7] Dominican Republic
Date: Tue 27 Jul 2010
Source: Dominican Today [edited]

Children with fever, respiratory problems and
suspicion of dengue fever again jammed the
emergency room of the Robert Reid Cabral
Children's Hospital in Santo Domingo, though the
disease's official mortality figures differ from
those of the Doctors' Guild (AMD). The dengue
cases flood emergency rooms as the Public Health
Ministry's statistics place the probable deaths
at 26 and 5466 cases, and the minister Bautista
Rojas admits they exceed 6000 this year. He
regrets that despite that doctors, clinics and
hospitals are obliged to notify cases, not all are reported.

The death of 16 children has been reported just
in Santiago, but the Health Ministry Website
registers only 9. Health Ministry figures for the
National District show 3 deaths and one each in
Baoruco, Duarte, Puerto Plata and Samana provinces.

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[The 30 Jul 2010 edition of El Nacional
reported that a commission was designated by the
Minister of Public Health, Bautista Rojas Gomez,
to determine why an above normal number children
were dying of dengue in the Doctor Arturo Grullon
Children's Hospital. To date, 16 children died
there, diagnosed with DHF. The Jose Maria Cabral
y Baez Hospital has not registered a significant
number of dengue cases, with just one death.

[A HealthMap/ProMED mail interactive map showing
the location of the Dominican Republic in the
Caribbean can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[8] Martinique
Date: Mon 26 Jul 2010
Source: DOMactu.com [In French trans. Corr.SB]

One woman died of dengue in recent days, and the
epidemic continues to grow in the island. Since
2007, health officials in the department had
experienced such an upsurge of dengue cases in
such a short week, the worst problem is mainly
the number of deaths is now risen to 6 since the
death of a woman of 48 years, in the last few days.

Since the epidemic began, more than 12 000 people
[of an estimated population of 402 000 in 2008]
have sought medical attention for symptoms
suggestive of dengue fever, and nearly 200 of them have been hospitalized.

If all municipalities are affected by the
epidemic, there seem to be more cases seem in the
central and southern parts of the department.

[Byline: Francis Thurenne]

Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[Maps showing the location of Martinique in the Caribbean can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[9] Brazil (national)
Date: Sun 8 Aug 2010
Source: UOL Notícias [in Portuguese, trans. & summ. Mod.TY, edited]

Dengue cases have more than doubled in 6 states;
Sao Paulo leads with a 2.28 percent increase. The
number of notified dengue cases shot up in the 6
states which, according to the Ministry of
Health, have the greatest incidence of the
disease in Brazil. In the 1st 6 months of the
year [2010], [the states of] Sao Paulo, Alagoas,
Mato Grosso do Sul, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais and
Goias registered at least 2 times more cases than last year [2009].

Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo presents the most dramatic picture.
Unlike what happens in the other states, the
Secretariat of Health in Sao Paulo does not
announce [the number of] reported cases, just
those confirmed. Just the same, there was an
increase of 2.28 percent of confirmed dengue
cases between January and June of this year
[2010], compared to the same period last year
[2009]. According to the most recent data from
the Ministry of Health, Sao Paulo now registered
up to the end of April 185 966 reported cases.
The Secretariat stated that up to 29 Jun [2010]
157 200 cases were confirmed, with 120 deaths.
Last year [2009] there were 6612 cases from
January to June. The peak of the disease was
recorded in March, when there were 51 057
confirmed cases in the state. Ribeirao Preto, in
the interior [of the state] is the city with the
greatest number of cases (27 951) and deaths
(11). In 2nd place is Sao Jose do Rio Preto, also
in interior Sao Paulo, with 17 729 [cases].

Alagoas and Pernambuco
With more than 32 000 notified cases and 19 758
confirmed cases in the 1st 28 weeks of the year
[2010], Alagoas is living through the greatest
dengue outbreak so far recorded in the history of
the state. According to the latest
epidemiological bulletin, the number of confirmed
[cases] is 845 percent more than that of the same
period of lst year [2009]. Since 1996, when the
state began its [dengue] records, there has never
been an incidence rate so high.

According to the Committee to Fight Dengue, the
current rate in June reached 650 per 100 000
population. The highest index registered
previously was in 2008, with 570 per 100 000
population. In addition to the increase in the
number of ill people, the serious cases and
deaths from dengue also increased over the same
period. To date, 9 deaths were confirmed and 13
are under investigation. The bulletin also noted
that all the 102 municipalities in Alagoas
registered suspected dengue [cases], with 36
encountering an epidemic situation and another 36
on a state of alert. The city with the greatest
incidence is Maceio, with reported 8345 cases as
of last week, 4 times more than the number
recorded for the same period in 2009.

Another state that in June suffered
a significant calamity from rains and
overflowing rivers, Pernambuco also registered a
significant increase in dengue case
notifications. Up to mid-June, 32 136 cases were
registered in 171 municipalities, and increase of
460 percent in relation to the same period in
2009, when there were 5739 reported cases. Most
of the cases were concentrated in Recife (5896),
Carauaru (5610) and Salgueiro (1881).

Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias
The 3 states of east-central Brazil also
registered high dengue incidence indexes. The
situation is most alarming in Mato Grosso do Sul,
where 78 364 cases and 43 deaths were registered
as of the last week of July. Compared with the
1st half of last year [2009], the increase was
nearly 570 percent. The capital, Campo Grande,
had most of the cases, with 39 360 reported.
Dourados (7116) and Tres Lagos (2145) were next highest.

In Mato Grosso there was not an excessive
increase (14 percent) compared with the past year
[2009], but even so there were 40 528 recorded
cases and 59 deaths since the beginning of the
year [2010]. In Cuiaba there were 4386 recorded
cases of the disease and 11 deaths. Last year
[2009] there were 35 500 reported cases.

In Goias, there were 92 441 dengue infections
recorded up to July [2010], an increase of 96
percent in relation to 2009. The capital,
Goiania, had 41 percent of the cases. Last year
[2009] there were 25 265 cases of the disease during the same period.

Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais
In addition to Sao Paulo, 2 other states of the
southeast present a visible increase in the
number of dengue cases -- Rio de Janeiro and
Minas Gerais. In Rio, the reported cases passed
12 403 from January - June this year [2010], with
31 deaths. The municipality which leads with the
number of infected individuals is Sao Goncalo, in
the metropolitan region, with 1805 cases and 8
deaths; 2nd is Tangua, also in the metropolitan
region, with 1730 and Macae, in northern Rio, with 1670.

Currently in Minas Gerais there was an increase
of 195 percent. There were 220 121 reported
cases up to July with 66 deaths confirmed. Last
year [2009] there were 74 717 cases during the
same period. The capital, Belo Horizonte leads
[the number] of cases with 62 337, followed by
Betim (18 069) and Montes Claros (7276).

For the researcher of the Epidemiology Department
of the Public Health Faculty of the University of
Sao Paulo, Paulo Roberto Urbinatti, the dengue
outbreak is a direct reflection of the lack of surveillance and prevention.

"When there is a considerable increase in the
number of dengue cases and lack of surveillance
and agents to control [dengue] in the population.
And, in addition to this, there is a flaw in
public policies, for example, for sanitation, for
selective trash collection and environmental
education," he said. He also explained that the
mosquito develops in warmer winter weather and in
stagnant water. "Climate is a very important
factor, and, in Brazil, the weather is favorable
for the development of the mosquito _Aedes
aegypti_, and because of this the eradication of
the disease is so difficult," he stated. "But it
is possible to combat it. So for this, integrated
actions for prevention and surveillance are needed."

Communicated by:

[We started in August with this news. This is
symbolic: traditionally, August is a low risk
month for dengue transmission, thanks to cooler
weather and lower humidity and rainfall. Dengue
fever has reached the threshold where the
[changing] climatic conditions exerted
influences. This is a problem. (There have been)
decades of wrong policies, lack of focus on urban
infrastructure and insistence on "eradicating"
_Aedes aegypti_, and irregularity of control
programs. Now it is late. Paraphrasing Drummond:
Brazil ... and now? The party is over and dengue
fever has won... Is there a solution? It exists,
but needs a big "reformation" of control
programs, the big problem now is the deaths;
these must be the overriding priority. This will
not be easy, but ... a long march always begins with the 1st step. - Mod.LJS]

[A map showing the states in Brazil can be
accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED mail interactive map of Brazil
can be accessed at . - Mod.TY]

[10] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)
Date: Mon 26 Jul 2010
Source: G1 RJ [in Portuguese, trans. & summ. Mod.TY, edited]

The number of dengue cases in Rio now has nearly
doubled that of 2009. In the 1st half [of 2010],
there were 31 deaths and 21 346 cases in the
entire state versus 12 deaths and 12 403 infected
individuals in all of last year [2009]. The
municipality with the greatest number of cases is
Sao Goncalo, 1805 cases with 8 deaths, followed
by Tangua with 1730 people affected and Macae with 1670.

The last big epidemic of the disease was in 2008,
when more than 250 000 cases were recorded, with
255 deaths in the state. In 2002, there were
almost 290 000 cases with 91 deaths. Due to the
increase, some specialists are raising an alert
for the risk of of a new epidemic next year [2011].

According to the state Secretariat of Health, the
number of registered cases up to now is not
considered alarming. But even so, 3000 fire
fighters are working as municipal health agents
to avoid the proliferation of the [vector]
mosquito. The Secretariat states, also, that a
contingency plan exists in order to combat the disease in summer.

Among the concerns of the specialists is the
return of dengue [virus] serotype 1, which has
not circulated in Rio since the beginning of the
1990 decade, that has been detected in
municipalities of the interior of the state. "It
is possible that we can have an epidemic since
the circulation of this [dengue virus] serotype
[1] was long ago and many children and youths
have had no contact with this serotype,"
explained FIOCRUZ [Foundation Oswaldo Cruz] entomologist Rafael Freitas.

Communicated by:

[The 29 Jul 2010 edition of ABC
reported that both dengue virus types 1 and 2 are
circulating in the state. The state Secretariat
of Health issued an alert on 28 Jul 2010, and
will strengthen prevention measures. - Mod.TY]

[11] Brazil (Alagoas)
Date: Tue 27 Jul 2010
Source: O Globo [in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY, edited]

The state of Alagoas has recorded more than 18
000 confirmed dengue cases between 3 Jan - 10 Jul
of this year [2010], according to information
from the Secretariat of Health. During this
period there were more than 30 000 reported cases
of the disease. During the same period last year
[2009], 3453 dengue cases were reported in
Alagoas and 1871 of them were confirmed. The
state has had an increase of nearly 800 percent
of confirmed cases of the disease in relation to
to same period of last year [2009].

Of the total number of cases reported, according
to the Secretariat nearly 10 000 are under
investigation and about 2400 were discarded. More
than 100 cities have suspected dengue cases. In
the state, 9 people have died and another 12
deaths are under investigation. There have been
354 confirmed cases of dengue with complications
or DHF of more than 500. Another 177 are under
investigation and 27 were discarded.

In the entire state, the situation in Maceio is
the most worrying for health authorities in
Alagoas. The capital has 50 neighborhoods, and in
48 of them dengue is out of control. These
numbers caused the municipality to intensify
actions to combat the larvae of the vector mosquito.

Communicated by:

[see also:
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (38) 20100727.2520
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (37) 20100720.2435
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (36) 20100719.2429
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (35) 20100715.2372
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (34) 20100715.2368
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (33) 20100713.2342
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (32) 20100705.2240
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (30) 20100627.2152
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (29) 20100622.2085
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (28) 20100618.2043
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (27) 20100616.2009
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (26) 20100607.1903
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (25) 20100601.1821
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (24) 20100524.1722
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (23) 20100517.1620
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (22) 20100510.1528
Dengue update 2010 (21) 20100503.1439
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (20) 20100426.1347
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (19) 20100420.1279
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (18) 20100412.1190
]Dengue/DHF update 2010 (17) 20100405.1094
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (16) 20100329.0982
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (15) 20100323.0922
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (14) 20100322.0910
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (13) 20100316.0840
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (11) 20100308.0753
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (09) 20100302.0685
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (08) 20100222.0597
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (07) 20100216.0537
Chikungunya & dengue - India: (TN) conf. 20100212.0500
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (06) 20100208.0426
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (05) 20100201.0346
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (04) 20100125.0277
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (03) 20100119.0211
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (02) 20100111.0131
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (01) 20100104.0038]

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