Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Wednesday, August 4, 2010


A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Tue 3 Aug 2010
Source: Boston.com [edited]

Planes are scheduled to take to the air tomorrow night [4 Aug 2010]
to begin spraying a swath of southeastern Massachusetts with
pesticide targeted at mosquitoes carrying eastern equine encephalitis
[virus], Governor Deval Patrick announced today at a news conference
in Lakeville.

The planes, which will cover Bristol and Plymouth counties, will
spray an insecticide called sumithrin, which is a synthetic version
of a chemical found in chrysanthemum flowers. Dr. Alfred DeMaria, the
state's top disease tracker, said environmental review committees
that have analyzed sumithrin regard it as "the most effective, least toxic."

The decision to start aerial spraying was prompted by testing that
showed an unprecedented level of virus-infected mosquitoes in July.
By Friday [30 Jul 2010], 30 samples of mosquitoes had tested positive
for eastern equine encephalitis [virus]. It's a time of year when
there's usually scant evidence of the virus circulating, and even in
years when human cases of the disease have been diagnosed, it's rare
to find more than 10 pools of infected mosquitoes in July, DeMaria said.

No human cases of the disease have been diagnosed in the state since
2008. From 2004 through 2006, there were 13 cases, resulting in 6 deaths.

To avoid being bitten by mosquitoes, specialists recommend staying
inside from dusk to dawn, peak mosquito-biting time. If outdoor
activity is necessary at night, wear long sleeves, long pants, and
socks. Bug [insect] repellents such as DEET, permethrin, picaridin,
and oil of lemon eucalyptus can also provide protection. DEET should
not be used on infants younger than 2 months and should be used in
concentrations of 30 percent or less on older children. Oil of lemon
eucalyptus should not be used on children younger than 3 years.

Homeowners can take measures that reduce mosquitoes' breeding
grounds, including draining flower pots, wading pools, and gutters.

[Byline: Stephen Smith]

Communicated by:
Ellen Bidlack
Plymouth Country Mosquito Control Project
Kingston, Massachusetts

[There was a clinical equine case of EEE virus infection in a horse
in Middleborough, Massachusetts, on 20 Jul 2010, earlier in the
summer season than usual for cases of this virus infection (see
ProMED-mail archive number 20100728.2529). Detection of EEE virus
transmission this early prompted the initiation of mosquito control
by public health authorities. Vaccination of equine animals and
avoidance of exposure to mosquito bites by residents is prudent,
given the evidence of EEE virus transmission in the area. There is no
EEE virus vaccine available for human use.

A map showing the location of Bristol and Plymouth counties,
Massachusetts can be accessed at
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of
Massachusetts in the northeastern USA can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[see also:
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (10): (MA, MI) 20100728.2529
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (09): (FL) fatal 20100723.2469
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (08): (LA) 20100716.2374
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (07): (FL) 20100715.2363
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (06): (FL, GA) 20100710.2312
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (05): (FL) 20100708.2274
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (04): (FL) 20100630.2178
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (03): (FL) 20100627.2146
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA (02): (FL) sentinel avian 20100623.2101
Eastern equine encephalitis - USA: (FL) 20100527.1755]

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