Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Friday, October 8, 2010

PSP Red Tide WARNING / Shellfish, BC

Be sure to see my text in red to see the important stuff they ARE NOT telling us about this disease.


A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society of Infectious Diseases
Date: 7 Oct 2010
Source: Benzinga.com
CFIA/Health Hazard Alert: Certain Raw Oysters and Mussels Sold in British Columbia May Contain Paralytic Shellfish Toxin

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is warning the public not to serve or consume the
raw oysters and mussels described below because these products may contain paralytic shellfish
toxins that can cause illness if consumed.
The following oysters and mussels, harvested from
Subarea 15-4, are affected by this alert:
Producer Product Size Lot code Harvest Date

Albion Fisheries Ltd. Oyster N/Shell 5 dozen Albion Lot # OCT03/10
# 1906 Royal Miyagi XS 173668 & 173716

Albion Fisheries Ltd Oyster N/Shell 5 dozen Albion Lot # OCT03/10

# 1906 Little Wing 173667
Aquatec Seafoods Ltd. Mussels Various Landfile # OCT04/10

Taylor Shellfish Canada ULC Gallow Mussles Various Landfile # OCT03/10

DBA Fanny Bay Oysters 2405189

These products were distributed to various retail and institutional clients in British Columbia.
Also, these products may have been sold in smaller quantities at some retail seafood counters. Consumers who are unsure whether they have the affected products are advised to check with their retailer or supplier.

There have been no reported cases of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) associated with the consumption of these products.

Paralytic shellfish toxins are a group of natural toxins that sometimes accumulate in bivalve shellfish that include oysters, clams, scallops, mussels and cockles.

 (PSP is the most deadly naturally occurring disease known to man, and is the most fatal to man; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_tide because of its Saxitoxin content; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxitoxin .It was used by our military as a biological weapon. It is listed in schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons Convention. According to the book Spycraft, U-2 spyplane pilots were provided with needles containing saxitoxin to be used for suicide in the event escape was impossible. The United States military isolated saxitoxin and assigned it the chemical weapon designation TZ. For a lung effect by aerosol, the median lethal dosage (LCt50) of TZ is 5 mg·min/m³. Due to its high aerobiological decay rate (e.g., ~17%/min) and production cost, it was weaponized in tainted flechettes for special operations.Though its early isolation and characterization were from military efforts, saxitoxin has been more important to cellular research in delineating the function of the sodium channel. )

Non-bivalve shellfish, such  as whelks, can also accumulate PSP toxins. These toxins can cause PSP if consumed. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, hands and feet, and difficulty swallowing. In severe situations, this can proceed to difficulty walking, muscle paralysis, respiratory paralysis and death in as quickly as 12 hours.

The shellfish processors are voluntarily recalling the affected products from the marketplace. The CFIA is monitoring the effectiveness of the recall.

["Red tide is caused by several toxic algae.]
Depending upon the toxin, it is also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), because it
causes shellfish to be toxic for consumption.

PSP is a significant problem in several geographic areas, especially in both the east and
the west coasts of the US. Produced by several closely related species in the genus
Alexandrium_, PSP toxins are responsible for persistent problems due to their accumulation in
filter-feeding shellfish; but they also move through the food chain, affecting zooplankton,
fish larvae, adult fish, and even birds and marine mammals.

Alexandrium_ blooms generally do not involve large-cell accumulations that discolor the water
and may instead be invisible below the water surface. Low-density populations can cause severe
problems due to the high potency of the toxins produced._Alexandrium_ spp. can grow in
relatively pristine waters, and it is difficult to argue that anthropogenic nutrient inputs are
stimulating the blooms. These characteristics are important when considering mitigation and control strategies.

Often PSP is associated with red tides or algal blooms. Red tide is caused by an organism called
_Karenia brevis_, which in high concentrations can make the water look red. The organism releases a toxin that paralyzes the respiratory system of fish and other marine life. Airborne toxins, water spray, and splashes in an outbreak have kept people from beaches while leaving others with irritated eyes and throats.
Red tide irritates the skin of people exposed to it and can cause itchy eyes, scratchy throats, and coughs. Harvesting from affected areas for personal consumption is discouraged. Red tide poisoning symptoms include nausea and dizziness and may last for several days. Previously the organism causing red tide was
known as _Gymnodinium breve_, but it has been reclassified in the taxonomy of dinoflagellates.
Its new name is _Karenia brevis_, or _K. brevis_.

South Africa (W. Cape): red tide 20070325.1039). - Mod.TG]
[see also:2007]

Red tide, aquatic mammals - USA: (FL) 20071231.4199
Paralytic shellfish poisoning, human - USA (ME) 20070802.2508
Manatee deaths, red tide - USA (FL) 20070403.112
Red tide, shellfish - USA (WA) 20060824.2388
Red tide - USA (TX) 20051002.2886
Red tide - USA (FL) (06) 20050925.2829
Red tide- USA (FL) (05): sea turtles 20050819.2437
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (04) 20050626.1800
Red tide - USA (ME) (02) 20050622.1752
Red tide - USA (ME) 20050618.1718
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (03) 20050612.1648
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) (02) 20050531.1508
Red tide - USA (FL) (04) 20050529.1493
Red tide - USA (NH, MA) 20050521.1406
Red tide - USA (FL)(03): human disease 20050329.0906
Red tide - USA (FL)(02): manatee deaths 20050311.0722
Red tide - USA (FL): alert 20050205.0400]

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