Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Weaponized Disease Hits Delhi as Economy Soars Due to Foreign Investments

These are the same weaponized diseases plaguing Central Africa. My how those pesky skeeters get around; http://meatsubs.blogspot.com/2010/10/chikungunya-dengue-epidemic-in-oil-rich.html

The Importance of Delhi, 1938; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiSFxKMO_2Q
Delhi Wiki; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delhi



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Sat 9 Oct 2010

Source: OneIndia News [edited]


After a gap of one month, dengue fear hit the capital once again on Friday,

8 Oct [2010], when 79 new cases were reported. The total number of dengue

cases mounted to 3938, stated a hospital official on 8 Oct [2010]. [Thus

far] in 2010, 7 people have died of the mosquitoborne disease.

Along with the dengue cases, 20 new chikungunya cases have been reported

recently in the capital, which has been claimed to be one of the cleaned

cities for being the Commonwealth Games' organiser.


communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail


[The previous ProMED-mail post (archive no. 20100929.3524) reported the

total number of chikungunya cases in Delhi at 8, as of 22 Sep 2010. Now,

the report above indicates that the total has reached 20. This is a mixed

chikungunya/dengue outbreak that shows no indication of slowing. Both

viruses are transmitted by the same _Aedes_ mosquito vector.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of India, showing the location of

Delhi, can be accessed at . - Mod.TY]

[see also:

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (51) 20101004.3593

Chikungunya (27) - India: (MH) 20101003.3581

Chikungunya & dengue - India (02): (DL) 20100929.3524

Chikungunya & dengue - India: (TN) conf. 20100212.0500



Chikungunya (40): India (TN), susp. 20091020.3612

Chikungunya (36): India (OR), susp 20091003.3442

Chikungunya (33): India (TN) 20090917.3258

Chikungunya (32): India (TN) susp 20090914.3237

Chikungunya (31): India (AP) 20090907.3145

Chikungunya (29): India (TN) 20090805.2763

Chikungunya (28): India (GA) 20090731.2680

Chikungunya (27): India (KL) RFI 20090730.2666

Chikungunya (26): India (GA) 20090725.2627

Undiagnosed illness - India: (GA) RFI 20090722.2594

Chikungunya (25): Malaysia, India (GA) 20090705.2410

Chikungunya (22): India (KA) susp. 20090621.2282

Chikungunya (10): India (KA) susp. 20090506.1692

Chikungunya (04): India (GJ) 20090314.1050]



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Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[62] Delhi's manufacturing industry has also grown considerably as many consumer goods industries have established manufacturing units and headquarters in and around Delhi. Delhi's large consumer market, coupled with the easy availability of skilled labour, has attracted foreign investment in Delhi. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers while the number of industrial units was 129,000.[63]

Construction, power, telecommunications, health and community services, and real estate form integral parts of Delhi's economy. Delhi has India's largest and one of the fastest growing retail industries.[64] As a result, land prices are booming and Delhi is currently ranked the 7th most expensive office hotspot in the world, with prices at $145.16 per square foot.[65] As in the rest of India, the fast growth of retail is expected to affect the traditional unorganized retail trading system.[66]

[edit] Utility services

The headquarters of the New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC). On the foreground is Jantar Mantar.The water supply in Delhi is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of 2006, it supplied 650 MGD (million gallons per day) of water, while the water demand for 2005–06 was estimated to be 963 MGD.[67] The rest of the demand is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is the largest water source for DJB, followed by river Yamuna and Ganges.[67] With falling groundwater level and rising population density, Delhi faces severely acute water shortage. Delhi daily produces 8000 tonnes of solid wastes which is dumped at three landfill sites by MCD.[68] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[69] A large portion of the sewerage flows untreated into the river Yamuna.[69]

The city's per capita electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh but actual demand is much more.[70] In 1997, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) replaced Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking which was managed by the MCD. The DVB itself cannot generate adequate power to meet the city's demand and borrows power from India's Northern Region Grid. As a result, Delhi faces a power shortage resulting in frequent blackouts and brownouts, especially during the summer season when energy demand is at its peak. Several industrial units in Delhi rely on their own electrical generators to meet their electric demand and for back up during Delhi's frequent and disruptive power cuts. A few years ago, the power sector in Delhi was handed over to private companies. The distribution of electricity is carried out by companies run by Tata Power and Reliance Energy. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[71]

State-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises like Vodafone Essar, Airtel, Idea cellular, Reliance Infocomm, and Tata Indicom provide telephone and cell phone service to the city. In May 2008, Airtel alone had approximately 4 million cellular subscribers in Delhi.[72] Cellular coverage is extensive, and both GSM and CDMA (from Reliance and Tata Indicom) services are available. Affordable broadband penetration is increasing in the city.[73]

[edit] Transport

Main article: Transport in Delhi

The Indira Gandhi International Airport is one of the busiest airports in South Asia.[74] Shown here is Terminal 1D of the airport.

The Delhi Metro has an average ridership of 1,500,000 commuters per day and runs at an operational profit.[75]

The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of CNG buses, totaling 9000[44][76]Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and a metro rail system.

Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand.[77] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses.[78] Delhi BRTS is Bus rapid transit serving the city which runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi as well as the satellite city of Gurgaon in the neighbouring Haryana and Noida in neighbouring Uttar Pradesh. As of April 2010, the metro consists of five lines with a total length of 111 km (69 mi) and 98 stations while several other lines are under construction.[79]

Line 1 runs between Rithala and Shahdara, Line 2 runs between Jahangirpuri and the Central Secretariat and Line 3 runs between Dwarka Sector 9 and Noida City Centre. Line 4 runs between Yamuna Bank and Ananad Vihar. The fifth line runs from Inderlok to Mundka. Phase-II of the network is under construction and will have a total length of 128 km. It is expected to be completed by 2010.[80] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II will cost an additional US$4.3 billion.[81] Phase-III and IV will be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, creating a network spanning 413.8 km, longer than that of the London Underground.[82]

Auto rickshaws are a popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and are yellow and green in colour. Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. Private operators operate most taxis, and most neighborhoods have a taxi stand from which taxis can be ordered or picked up. In addition, air-conditioned radio taxis, which can be ordered by calling a central number, have become increasingly popular, charging a flat rate of . 15 per kilometre.

Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi Railway Station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla.[77] Delhi is connected to other cities through many highways and expressways. Delhi currently has three expressways and three are under construction to connect it with its prosperous and commercial suburbs. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with two prosperous suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.

Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is situated in the western corner of Delhi and serves as the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers,[83][84] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 is currently under construction and will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually by 2010.[85] Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.[83] Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose.[86]

Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[77] At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India.[77] Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[87]

Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. As of 2008. Also, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, i.e., Delhi NCR is 112 lakhs (11.2 million).[88] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[89] In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[77] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles of Delhi to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.[90]

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