Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Friday, October 28, 2011



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Tue 25 Oct 11 2011

Source: The Local [edited]

Swedish researchers have discovered a new tick-borne illness that can

cause blood clots in the legs and lungs, with 3 cases having been

reported in Sweden.

A total of 8 cases of the disease have been reported so far, with

patients in Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic also having

been infected. All of those affected by the disease suffer from a

weakened immune system, the Dagens Nyheter (DN) newspaper reported.

The illness, which researchers call "neo disease" after the bacterium

that causes it, _Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis_, also brings

about flu-like symptoms with long-lasting high fevers, coughing, and

aches. The disease can be treated with antibiotics.

The 1st case was discovered in the summer of 2009 after a 77-year-old

man from Gothenburg came down with a high fever and lost

consciousness. During his treatment, doctors discovered blood clots in

his leg and lungs. The man's fever returned several times and doctors

eventually found traces of an unknown bacterium in his blood. The

disease, which is transmitted by ticks, had never before been reported

in Sweden and it was unclear what caused the disease in humans. The 2

additional Swedes who have become ill due to the bacteria are in their

60s and 70s.

It remains unclear why the disease causes blood clots, but researchers

have a number of theories in mind. "When the body can't deal with an

infection in the blood, it traps the infection in a blood clot,"

Christine Wenneras, a professor at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in

Gothenburg, told the newspaper.

According to researchers, 10 percent of ticks in southern Sweden carry

the bacteria.


Communicated by:


[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Sweden can be seen at

. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[Anaplasmataceae is a family of Gram negative, obligate intracellular

alphaproteobacteria that consists of 6 genetically distinct genera: 1)

_Ehrlichia_, _Anaplasma_, and _Neorickettsia_; 2) _Wolbachia_ and

_Aegyptianella_, which only infect nematodes, arthropods, or birds;

and 3) the newly proposed genus _Candidatus Neoehrlichia_

(). _Candidatus_ is the term

used for an interim taxonomic status of noncultivable prokaryotic

organisms. _Neoehrlichia_ refers to a new _Ehrlichia_; _mikurensis_

refers to Mikura Island in southern Japan, where the organism was

discovered ().

_Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis _ recently was discovered in ticks

and wild rodents in East Asia (Japan, China, Russia) and Europe

(Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Germany)

(). A closely related

but distinct species, _Candidatus N. lotoris_, was found in raccoons

in North America ().

Experimental infection with _Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis_ in

rats did not elicit antibodies against _Anaplasma phagocytophilum_ and

_Ehrlichia muris_ antigens

(), which further

support the position that _Candidatus Neoehrlichia_ is a separate


_Candidatus N. mikurensis_ has been identified by PCR amplification of

its 16S rRNA gene in at least 4 humans in Europe with febrile

illnesses that was associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic events.

Several of the infected patients have been immunocompromised


, and

). - Mod.ML]

[see also:



Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic - China (03): susp. 20101002.3573

Anaplasmosis, bovine - USA: (KS, NE, IA) 20100918.3376

Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic - China (02): background


Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic - China: (HE) susp, RFI


Anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis - USA: (WI, MN) Alert 20100515.1593



Anaplasmosis - USA: (WI, MN) 20090909.3186



Anaplasmosis, nosocomial transmission - China: (AH) 20081120.3661

Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic - USA: (MN), ex transfusion 2007


Anaplasmosis, human granulocytic - Canada: 1st rep., (AB)




Ehrlichiosis, fatal - USA (MO) 20070607.1849



Ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic - USA (MA) 20030903.2211

Ehrlichiosis, human monocytic - USA (NC) 20030625.1571



Ehrlichiosis, human - Mexico 19990713.1173



Ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic - USA (Connecticut) 19980713.1318

Ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic - Sweden 19980418.0719



Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (5) 19950802.0625

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis - Europe? 19950723.0581]




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