Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Tuesday, January 25, 2011


Dengue as a WMD. Pay particular attention to the 1950s span where it says misquitos with dengue were intentionally released on the public by the military to see if the could spread the disease; http://www.historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?us_military_weapons_of_mass_destruction=us_military_biologicalWeapons&timeline=us_military_tmln
My guess is that it did, and still does.
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

In this update:
[1] Peru (Iquitos)
[2] Cases in various countries: Honduras, Bolivia (Beni), Paraguay
(border area with Argentina and Brazil), Brazil (Parana), Philippines
(Santiago City)

[1] Peru (Iquitos)
Date: Tue 18 Jan 2011
From: Juan Carlos Celis [in Spanish, trans.
Mod.TY, edited]

The epidemic of dengue [virus]-2 Asian/American [genotype III] has now
been present for a month and a half since the confirmation of the 1st
cases in the Peruvian Amazon region and has reached epidemic levels.
Health services and hospitals continue to apply contingency measures
in the face of increasing demand [for health care] by patients with
serious signs who require hospitalization. Human and laboratory
resources have reached critical levels, and to date, 3 deaths have
been confirmed, and another 3 are highly probable [dengue deaths], but
confirmation has not been possible even though they had clinical
pictures compatible [with dengue infections].

The 2 city hospitals in Iquitos have provided hospital beds in
auditoriums and reorganized [treatment] facilities to meet the demand;
an average of 80 beds are available in each hospital for dengue
patients. Currently, an average of 8-15 dengue [patients] are
hospitalized in each hospital, challenging their installed capacity.

Today [18 Jan 2011], the epidemic took the life of a 10-year-old girl,
who developed dengue shock syndrome on the 4th day of her illness,
with pleural leakage, ascites, liver damage and probably myocarditis,
which led to general organ failure.

The office of the Regional Health unit is developing control measures
through a fumigation campaign in Iquitos city and for tomorrow [19 Jan
2011] declared a non-work day for a massive campaign to collect trash
[that could provide breeding sites for _Aedes aegypti_ vector
mosquitoes] in order to contain the epidemic. The rainy season of the
year that is expected to begin in coming months is favoring the
progression [of the epidemic] and making control measures difficult.

Juan Carlos Celis Sainas
Tropical infectious disease physician
Travel medicine
Hospital Regional de Loreto, Iquitos, Peru

[ProMED thanks Dr. Celis for this firsthand report updating the
outbreak in Iquitos. This report provides a vivid example of an
outbreak that threatens to overwhelm local health care capabilities in
this geographically isolated region in the Peruvian Amazon. Diverting
patients to other medical facilities is not feasible. Fumigation
efforts will provide only short-term mosquito vector population
reduction at best. It is critical that the vector breeding sites in
and around buildings be significantly reduced, an effort that will
require community participation. One hopes that there is a massive
community education effort to accomplish that goal.

The 23 Jan 2011 edition of El Comercio
() indicated that there have been 9 DHF deaths, and in the Diresa-Loreto area, the dengue cases total 5269 since 25 Dec 2010, when the 1st cases were

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Peru showing the location
of Iquitos in the Amazon region can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

[2] Cases in various countries: Honduras, Bolivia (Beni), Paraguay
(border area with Argentina and Brazil), Brazil (Parana), Philippines
(Santiago City)

- Honduras. 21 Jan 2011. The Honduras Ministry of Health today
initiated a national campaign to prevent dengue (virus transmission)
that took 83 lives last year (2010). In the 1st weeks of the year
(2011), at least 78 cases of classical dengue fever have been
registered and 8 suspected DHF cases. In 2010, the worst year for
dengue in 30 years, there were at least 66 646 confirmed classical
dengue fever cases with another 3099 DHF cases that caused 83 deaths.
[in Spanish, trans. Corr.SB,

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of
Honduras in Central America can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

- Bolivia (Beni). According to the Ministry of Health, there were 336
positive cases of dengue in Beni with over 1400 suspected; 19 people
are hospitalized with a serious diagnosis in hospitals in Trinidad. To
date since December 2010, there have been 7 deaths due to dengue in
the region. There are 3 dengue virus serotypes circulating, dengue
viruses - 1, - 2 and - 3.
. [in Spanish, trans. Corr.SB,

20 Jan 2011. The Bolivian Government declared a national health
emergency (in Beni department) because dengue (virus infection) has
taken the lives of 8 people and infected an additional 1200 confirmed
cases so far in 2011. In addition to the cases in Beni, health
authorities confirmed 178 cases in 5 of the 9 regions of the country
as of the 1st week (of 2011).
[in Spanish, trans. Corr.SB, edited]

[A map showing the administrative divisions of Bolivia can be accessed
at . A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Bolivia can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

- Paraguay (border area with Argentina and Brazil). 21 Jan 2011.
Paraguay health authorities reported the 1st dengue death so far in
2011, in the Iguazu Falls area along the borders of Brazil and
Argentina. The Ministry of Health reported more than 10 000 dengue
cases and 17 deaths in 2010
. [in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY,

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Paraguay can be accessed
at . - Mod.TY]

- Brazil (Parana). 22 Jan 2011. On 21 Jan 2011, the Parana Secretariat
of Health confirmed that there are nearly 300 suspected and 7
confirmed dengue cases in Londrina. In all of Parana (state), there
are 925 cases
. [in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY,

[A map showing the states of Brazil can be accessed at
. A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil can be accessed at
. - Mod.TY]

- Philippines (Santiago City). 19 Jan 2011. A dengue outbreak has been
declared in Santiago City in Isabela province. A total of 19 cases
have been recorded from 1-14 Jan (2011); one of the patients died due
to dengue shock syndrome

[A map showing the provinces in the Philippines can be accessed at
. A
HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the Philippines can be
accessed at . -

[see also:
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (03) 20110117.0198
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (02) 20110111.0122
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (01) 20110102.0020
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (62) 20101220.4483
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (59) 20101129.4300
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (53) 20101018.3777]
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