Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010



A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases


In this update:


[1] France (Alpes-Maritimes)


[2] USA (Florida): correction

[3] Brazil (Roraima)


[4] Philippines (Cebu)

[5] India (Delhi)


[1] France (Alpes-Maritimes)

Date: Mon 13 Sep 2010

Source: French Ministry of Health and Sport [in French, trans. Mod.SC

& CopyEd. Laurence Mialot, edited]


The Ministry of Health and Sports confirmed the presence of the 1st

indigenous case of dengue fever in France, Nice (Alpes-Maritimes).

This is an isolated case and no further cases have been reported to

date. The patient is cured and healthy.

This is level 2 of the national anti-dengue dissemination plan in

France, which is coordinated by the Directorate General of Health and

whose implementation is local, in this case, the Regional Agency for

Health PACA, the Prefecture of Alpes-Maritimes, and local communities.

To prevent any further spread of the virus, the epidemiological

surveillance measures and entomological (that is to say mosquito)

will be strengthened. Mosquito control actions have been implemented

around the area of the residence of the person who was affected.

The risk of development of an epidemic is considered limited, but can

not be excluded, due to the significant presence of the tiger

mosquito [_Aedes albopictus_] locally. The Ministry of Health

therefore calls upon the individual and community mobilization and

calls for people residing in and around Nice to adopt a number of

measures to prevent any further spread of the virus:

- destroy the larvae and potential mosquito breeding habitat in and

around (removing saucers under flowerpots and empty at least once a

week all the containers of still water: garbage, gutters ...);

- protect yourself from mosquito bites by wearing long sleeve shirts

and long pants, using insect repellents (following the proper dosage,

especially for children and pregnant women) as well as mosquito nets

crib for newborns and infants.

- protect habitat (mosquito nets, electric diffusers. ...).

Dengue is transmitted from person to person, only through a bite of

the _Aedes_ mosquito. In the south of France the _Aedes albopictus_

(tiger mosquito) is present. During a bite, the mosquito takes the

virus on an infected person. After an incubation period in the

mosquito of up to a few days and [then] it can transmit the virus to

a healthy person after another bite. Individual measures of

protection against mosquito bites are essential to fight against the

development of an epidemic.

Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-FRA


[The occurrence of a locally-acquired dengue virus infection is not

surprising. _Aedes albopictus_ has become established in various

parts of the Mediterranean Basin, including Nice (see ProMED-mail

archive no. 20100731.2564). Many individuals have become infected

with dengue viruses acquired in endemic areas and become ill after

their return to France (see ProMED-mail archive no. 20100616.2008).

When a viremic individual is located in an area with _Aedes

albopictus_, there is a risk of ongoing infection similar to the

chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Italy in 2007 (see ProMED-mail

archive no. 20071210.3980).

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of France showing the

location of Nice can be accessed at

. - Mod.TY]


[2] USA (Florida): correction

Date: Tue 14 Sep 2010

From: Danielle Stanek [edited]

We would like to provide a correction to the PAHO dengue alert

recently published in ProMED-mail that erroneously reported both

dengue 1 and dengue 3 virus circulation in Monroe County, Florida.

This is not the case; dengue 1 [virus] has been the only dengue

serovar detected in multiple samples collected in Monroe both in the

fall of 2009 and since re-emergence or re-introduction in March of


Dengue 3 serovar was identified by the Florida Department of Health

Bureau of Laboratories in a single patient from Broward County,

Florida several weeks ago (patient onset date was 1 Aug [2010]).

Since that time no further locally acquired cases have been

identified in Broward even following initiation of active

surveillance conducted by the Broward County Health Department.

Broward County does not directly border Monroe County.

We thank PAHO for quickly correcting their report and webpage once we

alerted them to the error. The Florida Department of Health Bureau of

Environmental Public Health Medicine weekly arbovirus surveillance

reports include all confirmed human and veterinary arbovirus cases as

well as positive results from sentinel chickens and may be viewed at


Communicated by:

Danielle Stanek, DVM

Medical Epidemiologist

Florida Department of Health

Bureau of Environmental Public Health Medicine

Zoonotic and Vector-borne Disease Program

4052 Bald Cypress Way, BIN A08

Tallahassee, FL 32399-1712

[ProMED-mail thanks Dr Stanek for bringing this correction to our

attention. The failure to detect ongoing dengue virus transmission of

dengue virus 3 in Broward County is good news, indeed.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing Florida in the

southeast USA can be accessed at


Broward and Monroe counties in South Florida can be located on the map at

. - Mod.TY]


[3] Brazil (Roraima)

Date: Mon 13 Sep 2010

Source: O Globo [in Portuguese, trans. & summ. Mod.TY, edited]

Researchers in the Roraima Central Laboratory, the Roraima Federal

University, and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) confirmed that

the dengue virus serotype 4 circulating in the state came from

Venezuela and is the same one that circulated in the country 28 years

ago, according to the state Secretariat of Health. They compared

current [virus] samples with information from a world bank of

genomes. From that point the virus was identified as having come from

Venezuela, where the disease is common, and has not mutated since


The discovery of the origin of the virus will help Epidemiological

Surveillance in fighting dengue in the state. In Roraima, 3 cases of

dengue [virus] type 4 were confirmed with 4 new suspected [cases].

After 28 years, this virus has returned to Brazil. The majority of

Brazilians do not have immunity to [dengue] virus type 4, which

increases the chances of an epidemic. At the beginning of the month

[September 2010], the Minister of Health, Jose Gomes Temporao, stated

that the disease is contained in the state and that there is no

evidence that it will spread to other parts of the country.


Communicated by:


[This is informative but not surprising. - Mod.LJS]

[A map showing the states in Brazil, with Roraima in the north, can be seen at


A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil can be accessed at

. - Mod.TY]


[4] Philippines (Cebu)

Date: Sun 12 Sep 2010

Source: Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation [edited]

The mosquito-borne disease [virus] continues to wreak havoc in the

province, claiming at least 8 lives of children just this month

[September 2010], the Regional Epidemiology Surveillance Unit (RESU)

7 revealed late last week.

The latest fatalities expired midweek last week inside the Vicente

Sotto Memorial Medical Center (VSMMC), a RESU 7 personnel said. There

were at least 270 patients brought to the VSMMC during a one-week

period from 1 Sep [2010]; 5 of them died. These patients, whose ages

range from 9 months old to 35 years old are from the different parts

of Cebu, including Cebu City.

DoH 7 director Susana Madarieta said from January to September of

this year [2010], the region has recorded 5571 dengue cases or 1229

cases more compared to the same period of last year [2009].

With the number of dengue cases in Cebu and the rest of Central

Visayas rapidly increasing, local government officials and the DoH 7

are stepping up its measures against the mosquito-borne dengue

disease here.

Cebu City Medical Center (CCMC) has been jam packed with dengue

patients being brought in almost daily, prompting Cebu City mayor

Michael Rama to ask those from outside the city to go to other

hospitals so as not to drain the city's resources.

[Byline: Mars W Mosqueda Jr]


Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A map showing the provinces in the Philippines can be accessed at


A HealthMap/ProMED mail interactive map of the Philippines can be accessed at

. - Mod.TY]


[5] India (Delhi)

Date: Tue 14 Sep 2010

Source: India Talkies, Indo Asian News Service (IANS) report [summ., edited]

With 4 deaths and over 1800 infected by the mosquito-borne disease

[virus] here [in New Delhi], medical institutions have their hands

full. While the bigger hospitals are trying to cope by joining beds,

there are some where patients have little option other than the

floor. At Safdarjung Hospital, run by the government and one of the

biggest here, the rush of dengue patients has become difficult to

manage. Prathap Dutta, joint secretary of resident doctors

association, told IANS. As many as 150 patients, Dutta said, land up

at Safdarjung Hospital in a day. "We are running out of medicines,

intravenous fluids and saline drips," Dutta said.

The incessant rains lashing the city and the debris created by

construction for the upcoming Commonwealth Games are the main reasons

cited for the dengue outbreak in the capital. The Municipal

Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has confirmed 4 deaths from the disease.

Over 1836 dengue cases have been recorded so far in Delhi.

According to MCD, the number of dengue cases this year [2010] will

cross the 2006 figure of 3366 cases.

The corporation has found a high density of mosquito breeding in the

south and central areas of the city. So far, they have issued 45 532

notices to errant residents and housing societies.

[Byline: Prathiba Raju]


Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of India showing the

location of Delhi can be accessed at

. - Mod.TY]

[see also:

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (47) 20100913.3308

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (46) 20100906.3198

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (45) 20100830.3085

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (44) 20100826.3010

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (43) 20100819.2891

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (42) 20100817.2847

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (41) 20100810.2726

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (40) 20100805.2651

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (39) 20100804.2636

Chikungunya and dengue - France (02): risk 20100731.2564

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (38) 20100727.2520

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (37) 20100720.2435

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (36) 20100719.2429

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (35) 20100715.2372

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (34) 20100715.2368

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (33) 20100713.2342

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (32) 20100705.2240

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (31) 20100701.2196

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (30) 20100627.2152

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (29) 20100622.2085

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (28) 20100618.2043

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (27) 20100616.2009

Chikungunya and dengue - France ex overseas 20100616.2008

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (26) 20100607.1903

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (25) 20100601.1821

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (24) 20100524.1722

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (23) 20100517.1620

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (22) 20100510.1528

Dengue update 2010 (21) 20100503.1439

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (20) 20100426.1347

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (19) 20100420.1279

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (18) 20100412.1190

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (17) 20100405.1094

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (16) 20100329.0982

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (15) 20100323.0922

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (14) 20100322.0910

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (13) 20100316.0840

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (12) 20100315.0835

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (11) 20100308.0753

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (10) 20100304.0707

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (09) 20100302.0685

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (08) 20100222.0597

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (07) 20100216.0537

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (06) 20100208.0426

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (05) 20100201.0346

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (04) 20100125.0277

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (03) 20100119.0211

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (02) 20100111.0131

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (01) 20100104.0038]




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